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青年人网温馨提示新SAT考试中,五篇文章中有一篇是双篇对比(paired passages),重点考察学生分析多篇文本的能力(Analyzing multiple texts)。这篇文章题材属于Science这一类,考察重点是“动物是否拥有类似人类的思维能力”这一老生常谈的话题,北京新东方美本本地项目刘琼歌老师发现在旧SAT中也有类似的文章(2008年1月短双“是否应该以人类动机解读黑猩猩的行为”)。

在题目设计上,五个题目依次考察了文章结构(text structure),隐含语义(implicit meanings:draw reasonable inferences and logical conclusions from text), 双篇对比求同(Analyzing multiple texts: synthesize information and ideas from paired texts),双篇对比求异(Analyzing multiple texts: synthesize information and ideas from paired texts)和双篇逻辑关系(Analyzing multiple texts: analyzing claims and counterclaims)这五个考点。

刘琼歌老师经过对比分析发现,这五个题目在考点设计上与旧SAT类似,只是选项由旧SAT的五个减为四个,且答错不再倒扣分数。整体上说,新SAT的文章复杂度和题目难度并没有显著增强。

【文章大意】

这两篇文章通过观察和实验研究鸟类是否拥有与人类类似的认知能力。

Passage 1第一段心理学家Morgan提出一条原则“如果有更加简单的解释,就不应该认为动物行为体现了类似人类的思维过程。”第二段则指出,人类似乎很“想”证明动物跟人一样“聪明”。从第三段至文章结尾,Gray做了一个观察实验(observation),发现New Caledonian crows有制作工具的能力。

Passage 2记述了作者对ravens感知环境能力的实验。作者发现ravens拥有区分new objects和background的能力,而且偏爱可食用的(edible)的东西。作者认为是ravens的好奇心(curiosity)导致它们能够感知周围环境的全部内容。

这两篇文章的共同焦点在于tool-making ability和curiosity能够证明鸟类拥有与人类类似的思维和感知能力。

【题目解析】

Question 20.Within Passage 1, the main purpose of the first two paragraphs (lines 1–8) is to

A. offer historical background in order to question the uniqueness of two researchers’ findings.

B. offer interpretive context in order to frame the discussion of an experiment and its results.

C. introduce a scientific principle in order to show how an experiment’s outcomes validated that principle.

D. present seemingly contradictory stances in order to show how they can be reconciled empirically.

答案:B

解析:Passage 1第一段从科学的角度指出,人类不能轻易下判断说动物行为体现了类似人类的思维能力。然而,从感性的角度来看,人类似乎又一直有一种期待,希望能找到证据证明其它动物跟人类一样“聪明”(第二段)。这两段内容为下文Gary的观察实验提供了一个解析的语境,即鸟类拥有tool-making的能力能不能证明鸟类有跟人类一样的思维能力。

考点: 文章结构(text structure)

Question 21.According to the experiment described in Passage 2, whether the author’s ravens continued to show interest in a formerly new object was dictated primarily by whether that object was

A. edible.

B. plentiful.

C. conspicuous.

D. natural.

答案:A

解析:由Passage 2第二段最后一段(In subsequent trials, when the previously novel items were edible, they became preferred and the inedible objects became “background” items, just like the leaves, grass, and pebbles, even if they were highly conspicuous.)可以看出,如果同样是之前见过的东西,ravens偏爱edible objects,不能食用的就当做background忽略。

难度:易

考点: 隐含语义(implicit meanings:draw reasonable inferences and logical conclusions from text)

Question 22.The crows in Passage 1 and the ravens in Passage 2 shared which trait?

A. They modified their behavior in response to changes in their environment.

B. They formed a strong bond with the humans who were observing them.

C. They manufactured useful tools for finding and accessing food.

D. They mimicked the actions they saw performed around them.

答案:A

解析:由Passage 1第四段开头(Their tools are hooked sticks or strips made from spike-edged leaves, and they use them in the wild to winkle grubs out of crevices.)可以看出,自然状态下的crows用带钩的小枝把虫子从洞穴里剔出来。而Gary和同事做实验的时候,他们用一天时间让crows习惯在一个树洞里找meat(Over the course of days, he and crow researcher Gavin Hunt had gotten wild crows used to finding meat tidbits in holes in a log.),然后在旁边放上针叶植物。实验证明,crows在这个新环境里依然有tool-making的能力。

Passage 2很明显,作者一直有意地在ravens周围放置不同的物品,以此观察ravens的反应。因此,两篇文章的共同之处在于,crows和ravens都能根据环境的变化调整自己的行为。

考点: 双篇对比求同(Analyzing multiple texts: synthesize information and ideas from paired texts)

Question 23.One difference between the experiments described in the two passages is that unlike the researchers discussed in Passage 1, the author of Passage 2

A. presented the birds with a problem to solve.

B. intentionally made the birds aware of his presence.

C. consciously manipulated the birds’ surroundings.

D. tested the birds’ tool-using abilities.

答案:B

解析:由Passage 1第四段段尾“hid behind a blind”得知,Gary和同事在做观察研究时会隐蔽起来,不让crows发现。而Passage 2第一段开头就可以看出,作者没有隐蔽,而是有意让ravens意识到他的存在。比如第一句(For one month after they left the nest, I led my four young ravens at least once and sometimes several times a day on thirty-minute walks.)和第3-4句(In the first sessions, I tried to be teacher. I touched specific objects—sticks, moss, rocks—and nothing that I touched remained untouched by them.)

考点: 双篇对比求异(Analyzing multiple texts: synthesize information and ideas from paired texts)

Question 24. Is the main conclusion presented by the author of Passage 2 consistent with Morgan’s canon, as described in Passage 1?

A. Yes, because the conclusion proposes that the ravens’ behavior is a product of environmental factors.

B. Yes, because the conclusion offers a satisfyingly simple explanation of the ravens’ behavior.

C. No, because the conclusion suggests that the ravens exhibit complex behavior patterns.

D. No, because the conclusion implies that a humanlike quality motivates the ravens’ behavior.

答案:D

解析:Passage 2的结论在最后一句。作者认为ravens拥有跟人类一样的特点——好奇心(curiosity)。而Passage 1第一段Morgan’s canon则警告不能随便给出这种解读。因此,这两种观点是不一致的,因为Passage 2的结论正是Morgan警告人们不要饭的错误。

考点: 双篇逻辑关系(Analyzing multiple texts: analyzing claims and counterclaims)

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