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SECTION 1

Time—35 minutes

27 Questions

Directions: Each passage in this section is followed by a group of questions to be answered on the basis of what is stated for implied in the passage. For some of the questions, more than one of the choices could conceivably answer the question However you jare to choose the best answer. that is, the response that most accurately and completely answers the question. and blacken the corresponding space on your answer sheet.

   To many developers of technologies that affect public health or the  environment. "risk communication" means persuading the public that the  potential risks of such technologies are small and

(5) should be ignored. Those who communicate risks in this way seem to  believe that lay people do not understand the actual nature of technological  risk. and they can cite studies asserting that. although people apparently  ignore mundane hazards that pose

(10) significant danger, they get upset about exotic hazards that pose little  chance of death or injury. Because some risk communicators take this  persuasive stance, many lay people see "risk communication" as a  euphemism for brainwashing done by experts

(15)Since however the goal of risk communication should be to enable people to  make informed decisions about technological risks, a clear understanding  about how the public perceives risk is needed. Lay people s definitions of  "risk" are more likely to reflect

(20) subjective ethical concerns than are experts definitions Lay people for  example tend to perceive a small risk to children as more significant than a  large risk to consenting adults who benefit from the risk-creating technology.  However, if asked to rank hazards

(25) by the number of annual fatalities, without reference to ethical judgments,  lay people provide quite reasonalbe estimates, demonstrating that they have  substantial knowledge about many risks. Although some studies claim to  demonstrate that lay people have inappropriate

(30) concerns about exotic hazards. these studies often use questionable  methods, such as asking lay people to rank risks that are hard to compare,  In contrast, a recent study showed that when lay people were given the  necessary facts and time they understood the specific

(35) risks of electromagnetic fields produced by high-voltage power  transmission well enough to make informed decisions

   Risk communication should therefore be based on the principle that  people process new information in

(40) the context of their existing beliefs. If people know nothing about a topic  they will find messages about that topic incomprehensible, If they have  erroneous beliefs, they are likely to misconstrue the messages. Thus,  communicators need to know the nature and

(45) extent of recipients knowledge and beliefs in order to design messages  that will not be dismissed or misinterpreted. This need was demonstrated in a  research project concerning the public s level of knowledge about risks posed  by the presence of radon

(50) in the home. Researchers used open-ended interviews and questionnaires  to determine what information should be included in their brochure on radon.  Subjects who read the researchers brochure performed significantly better in  understanding radon risks than significantly better in understanding radon  risks than

(55) did a control group who read a brochure that was written using a different  approach by a government agency. Thus, careful preparation can help risk  communicators to produce balanced material that tells people what they  need to know to make decisions

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(60) about technological risks

1. Which one of the following best expresses the main point of the passage?

(A) Risk communicators are effectively addressing the proloferation of complex   technologies that have increasing impact on public health and safety.
(B) Risk communicators should assess lay people s understanding of   technologies in order to be able to give them the information they need to   make reasonable decisions.
(C) Experts who want to communicate to the public about the possible risks of   complex technologies must simplify their message to ensure that it is   understandable
(D) Risk communication can be perceived as the task of persuading lay people   to accept the impact of a particular technology on their lives.
(E) Lay people can be unduly influenced by subjective concerns when making   decisions about technological risks.

2. The authors of the passage would be most likely to agree that the primary purpose of risk communication should be to

(A) explain rather than to persuade
(B) promote rather than to justify
(C) influence experts rather than to influence lay people
(D) allay people s fears about mundane hazards rather than about exotic   hazards.
(E) foster public acceptance of new technologies rather than to acknowledge   people s ethical concerns

3. According to the passage,it is probable that which one of the following will occur when risk communicators attempt to communicate with lay people who have mistaken ideas about a particular technology?

(A) The lay people perceiving that the risk communicators have provided more-  reliable information, will discard their mistaken notion
(B) The lay people will only partially revise their ideas on the basis of the new   information
(C) The lay people fitting the new information into their existing framework will   interpret the communication differently that the risk communicators had   intended
(D) The lay people misunderstanding the new infromation will further distort the   information when they communicate it to other lay people
(E) The lay people will ignore any communication about a technology they   consider potentially dangerous

4. Which one of the following is most clearly an example of the kind of risk perception discussed in the "studies" mentioned in line 8?

(A) A skydiver checks the lines on her parachute several times before a jump   because tangled lines often keep the parachutes from opening properly
(B) A person decides to quit smoking in order to lesson the probability of lung   damage to himself and his family
(C) A homeowner who decides to have her house tested for radon also decides   not to allow anyone to smoke in her house
(D) A person who often weaves in and out of traffic while driving his car at   excessive speeds worries about meteorites hitting his house
(E) A group of townspeople opposes the building of a nuclear waste dump   outsider their town and proposes that the dump be placed in another town.

5. It can be inferred that the authors of the passage would be more likely than would the risk communicators discussed in the first paragraph to emphasize which one of the following?

(A) lay people s tendency to become alarmed about technologies that they find   new or strange
(B) lay people s tendency to compare risks that experts would not consider   comparable
(C) the need for lay people to adopt scientists advice about technological risk.
(D) the inability of lay people to rank hazards by the number of fatalities caused   annually
(E) the impact of lay people s value systems on their perceptions of risk.

6. According to the passage many lay people believe which one of the following about risk communication?

(A) It focuses excessively on mundane hazards
(B) It is a tool used to manipulate the publie
(C) It is a major cause of inaccuracies in public knowledge about science
(D) It most often funcitions to help people make informed decisions
(E) Its level of effectiveness depends on the level of knowledge its audience   already has

   In April 1990 representatives of the Pico Korea Union of electronics  workers in Buchon city, south Korea, traveled to the United States in order to  demand just settlement of their claims from the parent company

(5) of their employers. who upon the formation of the union had shut down  operations without paying the workers from the beginning the union cause  was championed by an unprecedented coalition of Korean American groups  and deeply affected the Korean American

(10) community on several levels.

   First, it served as a rallying focus for a diverse community often divided  by generation, class and political ideologies. Most notably, the Pico cause  mobilized many young second-generation Korean

(15) Americans, many of whom had never been part of a political campaign  before, let alone one involving Korean issues. Members of this generation  unlike first-generation Korean Americans, generally fall within the more  privileged sectors of the Korean American

(20) community and often feel alienated from their Korean roots In addition to  raising the political consciousness of young Korean Americans, the Pico  struggle sparked among them new interest in their cultural identity The Pieo  workers also suggested new roles that can be

(25) played by recent immigrants, particularly working-class immigrants These  immigrants knowledge of working conditions overseas can help to globalize  the perspective of their communities and can help to establish international  ties on a more personal level, as

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(30) winessed in the especially warm exchange between the Pico workers and  recent working-class immigrants from China In addition to broadening the  political base within the Korean American community, the Pico struggle also  led to new alliances between the Korean

(35) American community and prograessive labor and social justice groups  within the larger society—as evidenced in the support received from the  Coalition of Labor Union Women and leading African American uniontsts.

(40) The reasons for these effects lie in the nature of the cause The issues  raised by the Pico unionists had such a strong human component that  differences within the community became secondary to larger concerns for  social justice and workers rights The workers

(45) demands for compensation and respect were unencumbered with strong  ideological trappings The economic exploitation faced by the Pico workers  underscored the common interests of Korean workers Korean Americans, the  working class more inclusively

(50) and a broad spectrum of community leaders

   The Pico workers campaign thus offers an important lesson. It  demonstrates that ethnic communities need more than just a knowledge of  history and cuture as artifacts of the past in order to

(55) strengthen their ethnic identity. It shows that perhaps the most effective  means of empowerment for many ethnic communities of immigrant derivation  may be an identification with and participation in current struggles for  economic and social justice in their

(60) countries of origin.

7. Which one of the following best describes the main topic of the passage?

(A) the contribution of the Korean American community to improving the   working conditions of Koreans employed by United States companies
(B) the change brought about in the Korean American community by contacts   with Koreans visiting the United States
(C) the contribution of recent immigrants from Korea to strengthening ethnic   identity in the Korean American community
(D) the effects on the Korean American community of a dispute between   Korean union workers and a United States company
(E) the effect of the politicization of second-generation Korean Americans on   the Korean American community as a whole

8. The passage suggests that which one of the following was a significant factor in the decision to shut down the Pico plant in Buchon City?

(A) the decreasing profitability of maintaining operations in Korea
(B) the failure to resolve long-standing disputes between the Pico workers and   management
(C) the creation of a union by the Pico workers
(D) the withholding of workers wages by the parent company
(E) the finding of an alternate site for operations

9. which one of the following is NOT mentioned in the passage as a recent development in the Korean American community?

(A) Young second-generation Korean Americans have begun to take an interest   in their Korean heritage
(B) Recent Korean American immigrants of working-class backgrounds have   begun to enter the more privileged sectors of the Korean American   community
(C) Korean Americans have developed closer ties with activist groups from other   sectors of the population
(D) Previously nonpolitical members of teh Korean American community have   become more politically active
(E) The Korean American community has been able to set aside political and   generational disparities in order to support a common cause

10. It can be inferred that the author of the passage would most likely agree with which one of the following statements about ethnic communities of immigrant derivation?

(A) Such communities can derive important benefits from maintaining ties with   their countries of origin
(B) Such communities should focus primarily on promoting study of the history   and culture of their people in order to strengthen their ethnic identity
(C) Such communities can most successfully mobilize and politicize their   young people by addressing the problems of voung people of all   backgrounds
(D) The more privileged sectors of such communities are most likely to maintain   a sense of closeness to their cultural roots.
(E) The politicization of such a community is unlikely to affect relations with   other groups within the larger society

11. In the second paragraph, the author refers to immigrants from China most probably in order to do which one of the following?

(A) highlight the contrast between working conditions in the United States and   in Korea
(B) demonstrate the uniqueness of the problem faced by the Pico workers.
(C) offer an example of the type of role that can be played by recent working-  class immigrants
(D) provide an analogy for the type of activism displayed by the Korean   American community
(E) compare the disparate responses of two immigrant communities to similar   problems.

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12. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) describe recent developments in the Korean American community that have   strongly affected other ethnic communities of immigrant derivation
(B) describe a situation in the Korean American community that presents a   model for the empowerment of ethnic communities of immigrant derivation
(C) detial the problems faced by the Korean American community in order to   illustrate the need for the empowerment of ethnic communities of immigrant   derivation
(D) argue against economic and social injustice in the countries of origin of   ethnic communities of immigrant derivation
(E) assess the impact of the unionization movement on ethnic communities of   immigrant derivation

13. Which one of the following most accurately states the function of the third paragraph?

(A) It explains why the Pico workers brought their cause to the United States
(B) It explains how the Pico cause differed from other causes that had   previously mobilized the Korean American community
(C) It explains why the Pico workers were accorded such broad support
(D) It explains how other ethnic groups of immigrant derivation in the United   States have profited from the example of the Pico workers?
(E) It expains why different generations of Korean Americans reacted in different   ways to the Pico cause

   In recent years, scholars have begun to use social science tools to  analyze court opinions. These scholars have justifiably criticized traditional  legal research for its focus on a few cases that may not be representative

(5) and its fascination with arcane matters that do not affect real people with  real legal problems. Zirkel and Schoenfeld, for example, have championed the  application of social science tools to the analysis of case law surrounding  discrimination against women in

(10) higher education employment Their studies have demonstrated how these  social science tools may be used to serve the interests of scholars lawyers  and prospective plaintiffs as well However their enthustasm for the outcomes  analysts technique

(15) seems misguided

   Of fundamental concern is the outcomes analysts assumption that  simply counting the number of successful and unsuccessful plaintiffs will be  useful to prospective plaintiffs Although the odds are clearly

(20) against the plaintiff in sex discrimination cases, plaintiffs who believe that  their cause is just and that they will prevail are not swayed by such evidence,  In addition, because lawsuits are so different in the details of the case in the  quality of the evidence the plantiff

(25) presents and in the attitude of the judge toward academic plaintiffs giving  prospective plaintiffs statisties about overall outcomes without analyzing the  reason for these outcomes is of marginal assistance Outcomes analysis for  example ignores the fact that in

(30) certain academie sex discrimination cases—those mvolving serious  procedural violations or meriminating evidence in the form of written  admissions of discriminatory practices—plaintiffs are much more likely to  prevail

(35) Two different approaches offer more useful applications of social science  tools in analyzing sex discrimination cases One is a process called "policy  capturing" in which the researcher reads each opinion identifies variables  discussed in the opinion such as

(40) the regularity of employer evaluations of the plaintiff performance training of  evaluatots and the kind of evaluation instrument used and then uses  multrvariate analvsis to determine whether these variables predict the  outcome of the lawsuit The advantage of ploicy

(45) capturing research is that it attempts to explain the reason for the  outcome, rather than simply reporting the outcome and identifies factors that  contribute to a plaintiff s success or failure Taking a slightly different  approach, other scholars have adopted a technique that

(50) requires reading complete transcripts of all sex discrmination cases  litigated during a certain time period to identify variables such as the nature of  the allegedly illegal conduct the consequences for employers and teh nature  of the remedy as well as the

(55) factors that contributed to the verdict and the kind of evidence necessary  for the plaintiff to prevail While the findings of these studies are limited to the  period covered they assist potential plaintiffs and defendants in assessing  their cases.

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14. Which one of the following best expresses the main idea of the passage?

(A) The analysis of a limited number of atypical discrimination suits of little   value to potential plaintiffs
(B) When the number of factors analyzed in a sex discrimination suit is   increased the validity of the conclusions drawn becomes suspect
(C) Scholars who are critical of traditional legal research frequently offer   alternative approaches that are also seriously flawed
(D) Outcomes analysis has less predictive value in sex discrimination cases   than do certain other social science techniques
(E) Given adequate information, it is possible to predict with considerable   certainty whether a plaintiff will be successful in a discrimination suit

15. It can be inferred from the author s disccussion of traditional legal research that the author is

(A) frustrated because traditional legal research has not achieved its full   potential
(B) critical because traditional legal research has little relevance to those   actually involved in cases
(C) appreciative of the role traditional legal research played in developing later   more efficient approaches
(D) derisive because traditional legal research has outlasted its previously   significant role
(E) grateful for the ability of traditional legal ressearch to develop unique types   of evidence

16. Which one of the following statements about Zirkel and Schoenfeld can be inferred from the passage?

(A) They were the first scholars to use social science tools in amlyzing legal   cases
(B) They confined their studies to the outcomes analysis technique.
(C) They saw no value in the analysis provided by traditional legal research.
(D) They rejected policy capturing as being too limited in scope
(E) They believed that the information generated by outcomes analysis would   be relevant for plaintiffs.

17. The author s characterization of traditional legal research in the first paragraph is intended to

(A) provide background information for the subsequent discussion
(B) summarize an opponent s position
(C) argue against the use of social science tools in the analysis of sex   discrimination cases
(D) emphasize the fact that legal researchers act to the detriment of potential   plaintiffs
(E) reconcile traditional legal researchers to the use of social science tools.

18. The information in the passage suggests that plaintiffs who pursue sex discrimination cases despite the statisties provided by outcomes analysis can best be likened to

(A) athletes who continue to employ training techniques despite their   knowledge of statistical evidence indicating that these techniques are   ulikely to be effective
(B) lawyers who handle lawsuits for a large number of clients in the hope that   some percentage will be successful
(C) candidates for public office who are more interested in making a political   statement than in winning an election
(D) supporters of a cause who recruit individuals sympathetic to it in the belief   that large numbers of supporters will lend the cause legitimacy
(E) purchasers of a charity s raffle tickets who consider the purchase a   contribution because the likelihood of winning is temote

19. The policy-capturing approach differs from the approach described in lines 48-59 in that the latter approach

(A) makes use of detailed information on a greater number of cases
(B) focuses more directly on issues of concern to litigants
(C) analyzes information that is more recent and therefore reflects current   trends
(D) allows assessment of aspects of a case that are not specifically mentioned   in a judge s opinion
(E) eliminates any distortion due to personal bias on the part of the researcher

20. Which one of the following best describes the organizatin of the passage?

(A) A technique is introduced, its shortcomings are summarized, and   alternatives are described
(B) A debate is introduced, evidence is presented, and a compromise is   reached
(C) A theory is presented, clarification is provided, and a plan of further   evaluation is suggested
(D) Standards are established, hypothetical examples are analyzed, and the   criteria are amended
(E) A position is challenged, its shortcomings are categorized, and the   challenge is revised.

   A fake can be defined as an artwork intended to deceive. The motives of  its creator are decisive, and the merit of the object itself is a separate issue.  The question mark in the title of Mark Jones s Fake? The

(5) Arl of Deception reveals the study s broader concerns Indeed, it might  equally be entitled Original? and the text begins by noting a variety of  possibilities somewhere between the two extremes. These include works by  an artist s followers in the style of the master.

(10) deliberate archaism, copying for pedagogical purposes, and the production  of commercial facsimiles

   The greater part of Fake? is devoted to a Chronological survey  suggesting that faking feeds on the many different motives people have for  collecting

(15) art, and that, on the whole, the faking of art flourishes whenever art  collecting flourishes. In imperial Rome there was a widespread interest in  collecting earlier Greek art, and therefore in faking it. No doubt many of the  seulptures now exhibited as "Roman copies" were

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(20) originally passed off as Greek. In medieval Europe. because art was  celebrated more for its devotional uses than for its provenance or the  ingenuity of its creators the faking of art was virtually nonexistent. The  modern age of faking began in the ltalian Renaissance, with

(25) two linked developments a passionate identification with the world of  antiquity and a growing sense of individual artistie identity A patron of the  young Michelangelo prevailed upon the artist to make his Seulpture Sleeping  Chpld look as though it had been

(30) buried in the earth so that "it will be taken for antique, and you will sell it  much better." Within a few years however beginning with his first masterpiece  the Bacchus, Michelangelo had shown his contemporaries that great art can  assimilate and transcend what came

(35) before resulting in a wholly original work. Soon his genius made him the  object of imitators.

   Fake? also reminds us that in certain cuitures authenticity is a foreign  concept This is true of much African art when the authenticity of an object is

(40) considered by collectors to depend on its function As an illustration, the  study commpares two versions of a chi wara mask made by the Bambara  people of Mali One has pegs allowing it to be attached to a cap for its  intended ceremonial purpose. The second, otherwise

(45) identical, lacks the pegs and is a replica made for sale African carving is  notoriously difficult to date, but even if the ritual mask is recent, made  perhaps to replace a damaged predecessor, and the replica much older, only  the ritual mask should be seen as authentic

(50) for it is tied to the form s original function. That at least is the consensus of  the so-called experts. One wonders whether the Bambaran artists would  agree

21. The passage can best be described as doing which one of the following?

(A) recondciling varied points of view
(B) chronicling the evolution of a phenomenon
(C) exploring a complex question
(D) advocating a new approach
(E) rejecting an inadequate explanation

22. Which one of the following best expresses the author s main point?

(A) The faking of art has occurred throughout history and in virtually every   culture.
(B) Whether a work of art is fake or not is less important than whether it has   artistic merit
(C) It is possible to show that a work of art is fake, but the authenticity of a   work cannot be proved conclusively
(D) A variety of circumstances make it difficult to determine whether a work of   art can appropriately be called a fake
(E) Without an international market to support it, the faking of art would cease.

23. According to the passage an artwork can be definitively classified as a fake if the person who created it

(A) consciously adopted the artistic style of an influential mentor
(B) deliberately imitated a famous work of art as a learning exercise
(C) wanted other people to be fooled by its appearance
(D) made multiple, identical copies of the work available for sale
(E) made the work resemble the art of an earlier era.

24. The author provides at least one example of each of the following EXCEPT:

(A) categories of art that are neither wholly fake not wholly original
(B) cultures in which the faking of art flourished
(C) qualities that art collectors have prized in their acquisitions
(D) cultures in which the categories "fake" and "original" do not apply
(E) contemporary artists whose works have inspired fakes

25. The author implies which one of the following about the artistie merits of fakes?

(A) Because of the circumstances of its production a fake cannot be said to   have true artistic merit
(B) A fake can be said to have artistic merit only if the attempted deception is   successful
(C) A fake may or may not have artistic merit in its own right, regardless of the   circumstances of its production
(D) Whether a fake has artistic merit depends on whether its creator is   accomplished as an artist
(E) The artistic merit of a fake depends on the merit of the original work that   inspited the fake

26. By the standard described in the last paragraph of the passage, which one of the following would be considered authentic?

(A) an ancient Roman copy of an ancient Greek sculpture
(B) a painting begun by Renaissance master and finished by his assistants   after his death
(C) a print of a painting signed by the artist who painted the original
(D) a faithful replica of a ceremonial crown that preserves all the details of and is   indistinguishable from the original
(E) a modern reconstruction of a medieval altarpiece designed to serve its   traditional role in a service of worship

22. Which one of the following best describes how the last paragraph functions in the context of the passage?

(A) It offers a tentative answer to a question posed by the author in the opening   paragraph
(B) It summarizes an account provided in detail in the preceding paragraph
(C) It provides additional support for an argument advanced by the author in the   preceding paragraph
(D) It examines another facet of a distinction developed in the preceding   paragraphs
(E) It affirms the general principle enunciated at the beginning of the passage
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