Directions: Each passage in this section is followed by a group of questions to be answered on the basis of what is stated for implied in the passage. For some of the questions, more than one of the choices could conceivably answer the question However you jare to choose the best answer. that is, the response that most accurately and completely answers the question. and blacken the corresponding space on your answer sheet.
To many developers of technologies that affect public health or the environment. "risk communication" means persuading the public that the potential risks of such technologies are small and
(5) should be ignored. Those who communicate risks in this way seem to believe that lay people do not understand the actual nature of technological risk. and they can cite studies asserting that. although people apparently ignore mundane hazards that pose
(10) significant danger, they get upset about exotic hazards that pose little chance of death or injury. Because some risk communicators take this persuasive stance, many lay people see "risk communication" as a euphemism for brainwashing done by experts
(15)Since however the goal of risk communication should be to enable people to make informed decisions about technological risks, a clear understanding about how the public perceives risk is needed. Lay people s definitions of "risk" are more likely to reflect
(20) subjective ethical concerns than are experts definitions Lay people for example tend to perceive a small risk to children as more significant than a large risk to consenting adults who benefit from the risk-creating technology. However, if asked to rank hazards
(25) by the number of annual fatalities, without reference to ethical judgments, lay people provide quite reasonalbe estimates, demonstrating that they have substantial knowledge about many risks. Although some studies claim to demonstrate that lay people have inappropriate
(30) concerns about exotic hazards. these studies often use questionable methods, such as asking lay people to rank risks that are hard to compare, In contrast, a recent study showed that when lay people were given the necessary facts and time they understood the specific
(35) risks of electromagnetic fields produced by high-voltage power transmission well enough to make informed decisions
Risk communication should therefore be based on the principle that people process new information in
(40) the context of their existing beliefs. If people know nothing about a topic they will find messages about that topic incomprehensible, If they have erroneous beliefs, they are likely to misconstrue the messages. Thus, communicators need to know the nature and
(45) extent of recipients knowledge and beliefs in order to design messages that will not be dismissed or misinterpreted. This need was demonstrated in a research project concerning the public s level of knowledge about risks posed by the presence of radon
(50) in the home. Researchers used open-ended interviews and questionnaires to determine what information should be included in their brochure on radon. Subjects who read the researchers brochure performed significantly better in understanding radon risks than significantly better in understanding radon risks than
(55) did a control group who read a brochure that was written using a different approach by a government agency. Thus, careful preparation can help risk communicators to produce balanced material that tells people what they need to know to make decisions
(60) about technological risks
1. Which one of the following best expresses the main point of the passage?
(A) Risk communicators are effectively addressing the proloferation of complex technologies that have increasing impact on public health and safety.
(B) Risk communicators should assess lay people s understanding of technologies in order to be able to give them the information they need to make reasonable decisions.
(C) Experts who want to communicate to the public about the possible risks of complex technologies must simplify their message to ensure that it is understandable
(D) Risk communication can be perceived as the task of persuading lay people to accept the impact of a particular technology on their lives.
(E) Lay people can be unduly influenced by subjective concerns when making decisions about technological risks.
2. The authors of the passage would be most likely to agree that the primary purpose of risk communication should be to
(A) explain rather than to persuade
(B) promote rather than to justify
(C) influence experts rather than to influence lay people
(D) allay people s fears about mundane hazards rather than about exotic hazards.
(E) foster public acceptance of new technologies rather than to acknowledge people s ethical concerns
3. According to the passage,it is probable that which one of the following will occur when risk communicators attempt to communicate with lay people who have mistaken ideas about a particular technology?
(A) The lay people perceiving that the risk communicators have provided more- reliable information, will discard their mistaken notion
(B) The lay people will only partially revise their ideas on the basis of the new information
(C) The lay people fitting the new information into their existing framework will interpret the communication differently that the risk communicators had intended
(D) The lay people misunderstanding the new infromation will further distort the information when they communicate it to other lay people
(E) The lay people will ignore any communication about a technology they consider potentially dangerous
4. Which one of the following is most clearly an example of the kind of risk perception discussed in the "studies" mentioned in line 8?
(A) A skydiver checks the lines on her parachute several times before a jump because tangled lines often keep the parachutes from opening properly
(B) A person decides to quit smoking in order to lesson the probability of lung damage to himself and his family
(C) A homeowner who decides to have her house tested for radon also decides not to allow anyone to smoke in her house
(D) A person who often weaves in and out of traffic while driving his car at excessive speeds worries about meteorites hitting his house
(E) A group of townspeople opposes the building of a nuclear waste dump outsider their town and proposes that the dump be placed in another town.
5. It can be inferred that the authors of the passage would be more likely than would the risk communicators discussed in the first paragraph to emphasize which one of the following?
(A) lay people s tendency to become alarmed about technologies that they find new or strange
(B) lay people s tendency to compare risks that experts would not consider comparable
(C) the need for lay people to adopt scientists advice about technological risk.
(D) the inability of lay people to rank hazards by the number of fatalities caused annually
(E) the impact of lay people s value systems on their perceptions of risk.
6. According to the passage many lay people believe which one of the following about risk communication?
(A) It focuses excessively on mundane hazards
(B) It is a tool used to manipulate the publie
(C) It is a major cause of inaccuracies in public knowledge about science
(D) It most often funcitions to help people make informed decisions
(E) Its level of effectiveness depends on the level of knowledge its audience already has
In April 1990 representatives of the Pico Korea Union of electronics workers in Buchon city, south Korea, traveled to the United States in order to demand just settlement of their claims from the parent company
(5) of their employers. who upon the formation of the union had shut down operations without paying the workers from the beginning the union cause was championed by an unprecedented coalition of Korean American groups and deeply affected the Korean American
(10) community on several levels.
First, it served as a rallying focus for a diverse community often divided by generation, class and political ideologies. Most notably, the Pico cause mobilized many young second-generation Korean
(15) Americans, many of whom had never been part of a political campaign before, let alone one involving Korean issues. Members of this generation unlike first-generation Korean Americans, generally fall within the more privileged sectors of the Korean American
(20) community and often feel alienated from their Korean roots In addition to raising the political consciousness of young Korean Americans, the Pico struggle sparked among them new interest in their cultural identity The Pieo workers also suggested new roles that can be
(25) played by recent immigrants, particularly working-class immigrants These immigrants knowledge of working conditions overseas can help to globalize the perspective of their communities and can help to establish international ties on a more personal level, as
(30) winessed in the especially warm exchange between the Pico workers and recent working-class immigrants from China In addition to broadening the political base within the Korean American community, the Pico struggle also led to new alliances between the Korean
(35) American community and prograessive labor and social justice groups within the larger society—as evidenced in the support received from the Coalition of Labor Union Women and leading African American uniontsts.
(40) The reasons for these effects lie in the nature of the cause The issues raised by the Pico unionists had such a strong human component that differences within the community became secondary to larger concerns for social justice and workers rights The workers
(45) demands for compensation and respect were unencumbered with strong ideological trappings The economic exploitation faced by the Pico workers underscored the common interests of Korean workers Korean Americans, the working class more inclusively
(50) and a broad spectrum of community leaders
The Pico workers campaign thus offers an important lesson. It demonstrates that ethnic communities need more than just a knowledge of history and cuture as artifacts of the past in order to
(55) strengthen their ethnic identity. It shows that perhaps the most effective means of empowerment for many ethnic communities of immigrant derivation may be an identification with and participation in current struggles for economic and social justice in their
(60) countries of origin.
7. Which one of the following best describes the main topic of the passage?
(A) the contribution of the Korean American community to improving the working conditions of Koreans employed by United States companies
(B) the change brought about in the Korean American community by contacts with Koreans visiting the United States
(C) the contribution of recent immigrants from Korea to strengthening ethnic identity in the Korean American community
(D) the effects on the Korean American community of a dispute between Korean union workers and a United States company
(E) the effect of the politicization of second-generation Korean Americans on the Korean American community as a whole
8. The passage suggests that which one of the following was a significant factor in the decision to shut down the Pico plant in Buchon City?
(A) the decreasing profitability of maintaining operations in Korea
(B) the failure to resolve long-standing disputes between the Pico workers and management
(C) the creation of a union by the Pico workers
(D) the withholding of workers wages by the parent company
(E) the finding of an alternate site for operations
9. which one of the following is NOT mentioned in the passage as a recent development in the Korean American community?
(A) Young second-generation Korean Americans have begun to take an interest in their Korean heritage
(B) Recent Korean American immigrants of working-class backgrounds have begun to enter the more privileged sectors of the Korean American community
(C) Korean Americans have developed closer ties with activist groups from other sectors of the population
(D) Previously nonpolitical members of teh Korean American community have become more politically active
(E) The Korean American community has been able to set aside political and generational disparities in order to support a common cause
10. It can be inferred that the author of the passage would most likely agree with which one of the following statements about ethnic communities of immigrant derivation?
(A) Such communities can derive important benefits from maintaining ties with their countries of origin
(B) Such communities should focus primarily on promoting study of the history and culture of their people in order to strengthen their ethnic identity
(C) Such communities can most successfully mobilize and politicize their young people by addressing the problems of voung people of all backgrounds
(D) The more privileged sectors of such communities are most likely to maintain a sense of closeness to their cultural roots.
(E) The politicization of such a community is unlikely to affect relations with other groups within the larger society
11. In the second paragraph, the author refers to immigrants from China most probably in order to do which one of the following?
(A) highlight the contrast between working conditions in the United States and in Korea
(B) demonstrate the uniqueness of the problem faced by the Pico workers.
(C) offer an example of the type of role that can be played by recent working- class immigrants
(D) provide an analogy for the type of activism displayed by the Korean American community
(E) compare the disparate responses of two immigrant communities to similar problems.
12. The primary purpose of the passage is to
(A) describe recent developments in the Korean American community that have strongly affected other ethnic communities of immigrant derivation
(B) describe a situation in the Korean American community that presents a model for the empowerment of ethnic communities of immigrant derivation
(C) detial the problems faced by the Korean American community in order to illustrate the need for the empowerment of ethnic communities of immigrant derivation
(D) argue against economic and social injustice in the countries of origin of ethnic communities of immigrant derivation
(E) assess the impact of the unionization movement on ethnic communities of immigrant derivation
13. Which one of the following most accurately states the function of the third paragraph?
(A) It explains why the Pico workers brought their cause to the United States
(B) It explains how the Pico cause differed from other causes that had previously mobilized the Korean American community
(C) It explains why the Pico workers were accorded such broad support
(D) It explains how other ethnic groups of immigrant derivation in the United States have profited from the example of the Pico workers?
(E) It expains why different generations of Korean Americans reacted in different ways to the Pico cause
In recent years, scholars have begun to use social science tools to analyze court opinions. These scholars have justifiably criticized traditional legal research for its focus on a few cases that may not be representative
(5) and its fascination with arcane matters that do not affect real people with real legal problems. Zirkel and Schoenfeld, for example, have championed the application of social science tools to the analysis of case law surrounding discrimination against women in
(10) higher education employment Their studies have demonstrated how these social science tools may be used to serve the interests of scholars lawyers and prospective plaintiffs as well However their enthustasm for the outcomes analysts technique
(15) seems misguided
Of fundamental concern is the outcomes analysts assumption that simply counting the number of successful and unsuccessful plaintiffs will be useful to prospective plaintiffs Although the odds are clearly
(20) against the plaintiff in sex discrimination cases, plaintiffs who believe that their cause is just and that they will prevail are not swayed by such evidence, In addition, because lawsuits are so different in the details of the case in the quality of the evidence the plantiff
(25) presents and in the attitude of the judge toward academic plaintiffs giving prospective plaintiffs statisties about overall outcomes without analyzing the reason for these outcomes is of marginal assistance Outcomes analysis for example ignores the fact that in
(30) certain academie sex discrimination cases—those mvolving serious procedural violations or meriminating evidence in the form of written admissions of discriminatory practices—plaintiffs are much more likely to prevail
(35) Two different approaches offer more useful applications of social science tools in analyzing sex discrimination cases One is a process called "policy capturing" in which the researcher reads each opinion identifies variables discussed in the opinion such as
(40) the regularity of employer evaluations of the plaintiff performance training of evaluatots and the kind of evaluation instrument used and then uses multrvariate analvsis to determine whether these variables predict the outcome of the lawsuit The advantage of ploicy
(45) capturing research is that it attempts to explain the reason for the outcome, rather than simply reporting the outcome and identifies factors that contribute to a plaintiff s success or failure Taking a slightly different approach, other scholars have adopted a technique that
(50) requires reading complete transcripts of all sex discrmination cases litigated during a certain time period to identify variables such as the nature of the allegedly illegal conduct the consequences for employers and teh nature of the remedy as well as the
(55) factors that contributed to the verdict and the kind of evidence necessary for the plaintiff to prevail While the findings of these studies are limited to the period covered they assist potential plaintiffs and defendants in assessing their cases.
14. Which one of the following best expresses the main idea of the passage?
(A) The analysis of a limited number of atypical discrimination suits of little value to potential plaintiffs
(B) When the number of factors analyzed in a sex discrimination suit is increased the validity of the conclusions drawn becomes suspect
(C) Scholars who are critical of traditional legal research frequently offer alternative approaches that are also seriously flawed
(D) Outcomes analysis has less predictive value in sex discrimination cases than do certain other social science techniques
(E) Given adequate information, it is possible to predict with considerable certainty whether a plaintiff will be successful in a discrimination suit
15. It can be inferred from the author s disccussion of traditional legal research that the author is
(A) frustrated because traditional legal research has not achieved its full potential
(B) critical because traditional legal research has little relevance to those actually involved in cases
(C) appreciative of the role traditional legal research played in developing later more efficient approaches
(D) derisive because traditional legal research has outlasted its previously significant role
(E) grateful for the ability of traditional legal ressearch to develop unique types of evidence
16. Which one of the following statements about Zirkel and Schoenfeld can be inferred from the passage?
(A) They were the first scholars to use social science tools in amlyzing legal cases
(B) They confined their studies to the outcomes analysis technique.
(C) They saw no value in the analysis provided by traditional legal research.
(D) They rejected policy capturing as being too limited in scope
(E) They believed that the information generated by outcomes analysis would be relevant for plaintiffs.
17. The author s characterization of traditional legal research in the first paragraph is intended to
(A) provide background information for the subsequent discussion
(B) summarize an opponent s position
(C) argue against the use of social science tools in the analysis of sex discrimination cases
(D) emphasize the fact that legal researchers act to the detriment of potential plaintiffs
(E) reconcile traditional legal researchers to the use of social science tools.
18. The information in the passage suggests that plaintiffs who pursue sex discrimination cases despite the statisties provided by outcomes analysis can best be likened to
(A) athletes who continue to employ training techniques despite their knowledge of statistical evidence indicating that these techniques are ulikely to be effective
(B) lawyers who handle lawsuits for a large number of clients in the hope that some percentage will be successful
(C) candidates for public office who are more interested in making a political statement than in winning an election
(D) supporters of a cause who recruit individuals sympathetic to it in the belief that large numbers of supporters will lend the cause legitimacy
(E) purchasers of a charity s raffle tickets who consider the purchase a contribution because the likelihood of winning is temote
19. The policy-capturing approach differs from the approach described in lines 48-59 in that the latter approach
(A) makes use of detailed information on a greater number of cases
(B) focuses more directly on issues of concern to litigants
(C) analyzes information that is more recent and therefore reflects current trends
(D) allows assessment of aspects of a case that are not specifically mentioned in a judge s opinion
(E) eliminates any distortion due to personal bias on the part of the researcher
20. Which one of the following best describes the organizatin of the passage?
(A) A technique is introduced, its shortcomings are summarized, and alternatives are described
(B) A debate is introduced, evidence is presented, and a compromise is reached
(C) A theory is presented, clarification is provided, and a plan of further evaluation is suggested
(D) Standards are established, hypothetical examples are analyzed, and the criteria are amended
(E) A position is challenged, its shortcomings are categorized, and the challenge is revised.
A fake can be defined as an artwork intended to deceive. The motives of its creator are decisive, and the merit of the object itself is a separate issue. The question mark in the title of Mark Jones s Fake? The
(5) Arl of Deception reveals the study s broader concerns Indeed, it might equally be entitled Original? and the text begins by noting a variety of possibilities somewhere between the two extremes. These include works by an artist s followers in the style of the master.
(10) deliberate archaism, copying for pedagogical purposes, and the production of commercial facsimiles
The greater part of Fake? is devoted to a Chronological survey suggesting that faking feeds on the many different motives people have for collecting
(15) art, and that, on the whole, the faking of art flourishes whenever art collecting flourishes. In imperial Rome there was a widespread interest in collecting earlier Greek art, and therefore in faking it. No doubt many of the seulptures now exhibited as "Roman copies" were
(20) originally passed off as Greek. In medieval Europe. because art was celebrated more for its devotional uses than for its provenance or the ingenuity of its creators the faking of art was virtually nonexistent. The modern age of faking began in the ltalian Renaissance, with
(25) two linked developments a passionate identification with the world of antiquity and a growing sense of individual artistie identity A patron of the young Michelangelo prevailed upon the artist to make his Seulpture Sleeping Chpld look as though it had been
(30) buried in the earth so that "it will be taken for antique, and you will sell it much better." Within a few years however beginning with his first masterpiece the Bacchus, Michelangelo had shown his contemporaries that great art can assimilate and transcend what came
(35) before resulting in a wholly original work. Soon his genius made him the object of imitators.
Fake? also reminds us that in certain cuitures authenticity is a foreign concept This is true of much African art when the authenticity of an object is
(40) considered by collectors to depend on its function As an illustration, the study commpares two versions of a chi wara mask made by the Bambara people of Mali One has pegs allowing it to be attached to a cap for its intended ceremonial purpose. The second, otherwise
(45) identical, lacks the pegs and is a replica made for sale African carving is notoriously difficult to date, but even if the ritual mask is recent, made perhaps to replace a damaged predecessor, and the replica much older, only the ritual mask should be seen as authentic
(50) for it is tied to the form s original function. That at least is the consensus of the so-called experts. One wonders whether the Bambaran artists would agree
21. The passage can best be described as doing which one of the following?
(A) recondciling varied points of view
(B) chronicling the evolution of a phenomenon
(C) exploring a complex question
(D) advocating a new approach
(E) rejecting an inadequate explanation
22. Which one of the following best expresses the author s main point?
(A) The faking of art has occurred throughout history and in virtually every culture.
(B) Whether a work of art is fake or not is less important than whether it has artistic merit
(C) It is possible to show that a work of art is fake, but the authenticity of a work cannot be proved conclusively
(D) A variety of circumstances make it difficult to determine whether a work of art can appropriately be called a fake
(E) Without an international market to support it, the faking of art would cease.
23. According to the passage an artwork can be definitively classified as a fake if the person who created it
(A) consciously adopted the artistic style of an influential mentor
(B) deliberately imitated a famous work of art as a learning exercise
(C) wanted other people to be fooled by its appearance
(D) made multiple, identical copies of the work available for sale
(E) made the work resemble the art of an earlier era.
24. The author provides at least one example of each of the following EXCEPT:
(A) categories of art that are neither wholly fake not wholly original
(B) cultures in which the faking of art flourished
(C) qualities that art collectors have prized in their acquisitions
(D) cultures in which the categories "fake" and "original" do not apply
(E) contemporary artists whose works have inspired fakes
25. The author implies which one of the following about the artistie merits of fakes?
(A) Because of the circumstances of its production a fake cannot be said to have true artistic merit
(B) A fake can be said to have artistic merit only if the attempted deception is successful
(C) A fake may or may not have artistic merit in its own right, regardless of the circumstances of its production
(D) Whether a fake has artistic merit depends on whether its creator is accomplished as an artist
(E) The artistic merit of a fake depends on the merit of the original work that inspited the fake
26. By the standard described in the last paragraph of the passage, which one of the following would be considered authentic?
(A) an ancient Roman copy of an ancient Greek sculpture
(B) a painting begun by Renaissance master and finished by his assistants after his death
(C) a print of a painting signed by the artist who painted the original
(D) a faithful replica of a ceremonial crown that preserves all the details of and is indistinguishable from the original
(E) a modern reconstruction of a medieval altarpiece designed to serve its traditional role in a service of worship
22. Which one of the following best describes how the last paragraph functions in the context of the passage?
(A) It offers a tentative answer to a question posed by the author in the opening paragraph
(B) It summarizes an account provided in detail in the preceding paragraph
(C) It provides additional support for an argument advanced by the author in the preceding paragraph
(D) It examines another facet of a distinction developed in the preceding paragraphs
(E) It affirms the general principle enunciated at the beginning of the passage