Directions: Each passage in this section is followed by a group of questions to be answered on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage. For some of the questions, more than one of the choices could conceivably answer the question. However, you are to choose the best answer, that is, the response that most accurately and completely answers the question, and blacken the corn conding space on your answer sheet.
Musicoiogists concerned with the "London Pianoforte school," the group of composers, pedagogues, pianists, publishers, and builders who contributed to the development of the piano in London
(5) at the turn of the nineteenth century have long encountered a formidable obstacle in the general unavailability of music of this "school" in modern scholarly editions, Indeed, much of this repertory has more or less vanished from our historical
(10) consciousness. Granted, the sonatas and Gradus ad Parnassum of Muzio Clementi and the nocturnes of john Field have remained farniliar enough (though more often than not in editions lacking scholarly rigor), but the work of other leading representatives, like
(15) Johann Baptist Cramer and Jan Ladislav Dussek, has eluded serious attempts at revival.
Nicholas Temperley s ambitious new anthology decisively overcomes this deficiency. What underscores the intrinsic value of Temperley s editions
(20) is that the anthology reproduces nearly all of the original music in facsimile. Making available this cross section of English musical life—some 800 works by 49 composers—should encourage new critical perspectives about how piano music evolved in
(25) England, an issue of considerable relevance to our understanding of how piano music developed on the European continent, and of how, finally, the instrument was transformed from the fortepiano to what we know today as the piano.
(30) To be sure, the London Pianoforte school itself calls for review. "School" may well be too strong a word for what was arguably a group unified not so much by stylistic principles or aesthetic creed as by the geographical circumstance that they worked at
(35) various times in London and produced pianos and piano music for English pianos and English markets. Indeed, Temperley concedes that their "variety may be so great as to cast doubt on the notion of a school. "
The notion of a school was first propounded by
(40) Alexander Ringer, who argued that laws of artistic survival forced the young, progressive Beethoven to turn outside Austria for creative models, and that he found inspiration in a group of pianists connected with Clementi in London. Ringer s proposed London
(45) Pianoforte school did suggest a circumscribed and fairly unified group—for want of a better term, a school—of musicians whose influence was felt primarily in the decades just before and after 1800. After all, Beethoven did respond to the advances of the
(50) Broadwood piano—its reinforced frame, extended compass, triple strining, and pedsals, for example—and it is reasonable to suppose that London pianists who composed music for such an instrument during the critical phase of its development exercised no small
(55) degree of influence on Continental musicians. Nevertheless, perhaps the most sensible approach to this issue is to define the school by the period (c, 1766-1873) during which it flourished, as Temperley has done in the anthology.
1. Which one of the following most accurately states the author s main point?
(A) Temperley has recently called into question the designation of a group of composers. pedagogues, pianists, publishers, and builders as the London Pianoforte school
(B) Temperley s anthology of the music of the London Pianoforte school contributes significantly to an understanding of an influential period in the history of music.
(C) The music of the London Pianoforte school has been revived by the publication of Temperley s new anthology.
(D) Primary sources for musical manuserrpts provide the most reliable basis for musicological research.
(E) The development of the modern piano in England influenced composers and other musicians throughout Europe.
2. It can be inferred that which one of the following is true of the piano music of the London Pianoforte school?
(A) The nocturnes of John Field typify the London Pianoforte school style.
(B) The Gradus ad Parnassum of Muzio Clementi is the best-known work of these composers.
(C) No original scores for this music are exant
(D) Prior to Temperley s edition, no attempts to issue new editions of this music had been made.
(E) In modern times much of the music of this school has been little known even to musicians.
3. The author mentions the sonatas of Muzio Clementi and the nocturnes of John Field as examples of which one of the following?
(A) works by composers of the London Pianoforte school that have been preserved in rigorous scholarly editions
(B) works that are no longer remembered by most people
(C) works acclaimed by the leaders of the London Pianoforte school
(D) works by composers of the London Pianoforte school that are relatively wellknown
(E) works by composers of the London Pianoforte school that have been revived by Temperley in his anthology
4. Which one of the following, if true, would most clearly undermine a portion of Ringer s argument as the argument is described in the passage?
(A) Musicians in Austria composed innovative music for the Broadwood piano as soon as the instrument became available.
(B) Clementi and his followers produced most of their compositions between 1790 and 1810.
(C) The influence of Continental musicians is apparent in some of the works of Beethoven.
(D) The pianist-composers of the London Pianoforte school shared many of the same stylistic principles.
(E) Most composers of the London Pianoforte school were born on the Continent and were drawn to London by the work of Clementi and his followers.
5. It can be inferred that the author uses the word "advances" (line 49) to refer to
(A) enticements offered musicians by instrument manufacturers
(B) improvements in the structure of a particular instrument
(C) innovations in the forms of music produced for a particular instrument
(D) stylistic elaborations made possible by changes in a particular instrument
(E) changes in musicians opinions about a particular instrument
6. It can be inferred from the passage as a whole that the author s purpose in the third paragraph is primarily to
(A) cast doubt on the usefulness of Temperley s study of the London Pianoforte school
(B) introduce a discussion of the coherency of the London Pianoforte school
(C) summarize Ringer s argument about the London Pianoforte school
(D) emphasize the complex nature of the musicological elements shared by members of the London Pianoforte school.
(E) identify the unique contributions made to music by the London Pianoforte school
7. The author of the passage is primarily concerned with
(A) explaining the influence of the development of the pianoforte on the music of Beethoven
(B) describing Tempetley s view of the contrast between the development of piano music in England and the development of plano music elsewhere in Europe
(C) presenting Temperley s evaluation of the impact of changes in piano construction on styles and forms of music composed in the era of the London Pianoforte school
(D) considering an altermnative theory to that proposed by Ringer concerning the London Pianoforte school
(E) discussing the contribution of Temperley s anthology to what is known of the history of the London Pianoforte school
8. It can be inferred that Temperley s anthology treats the London Pianoforte school as
(A) a group of pianist-composers who shared certain stylistic principles and arustic creeds
(B) a group of people who contributed to the development of piano music between 1766 and 1873
(C) a group of composers who influenced the music of Beethoven in the decades just before and just after 1800
(D) a series of compositions for the pianoforte published in the decades just before and just after 1800
(E) a series of compositions that had a significant influence on the music of the Continent in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries
What is "law"? By what processes do judges arrive at opinions. those documents that justify their belief that the "law" dictates a conclusion one way or the other? These are among the oldest questions in
(5) jurisprudence, debate about which has traditionally been dominated by representatives of two schools of thought: proponents of natural law, who see law as intertwined with a moral order independent of society s rules and mores, and legal positivists, who see law
(10) solely as embodying the commands of a society s ruling authority
Since the early 1970s, these familiar questions have received some new and surprising answers in the legal academy. This novelty is in part a consequence of the
(15) increasing influence there of academic disciplines and intellectual traditions previously unconnected with the study of law. Perhaps the most influential have been the answers given by the Law and Economics school. According to these legal economists, law consists and
(20) ought to consist of those rules that maximize a society s material wealth and that abet the efficient operation of markets designed to generate wealth. More controversial have been the various answers provided by members of the Critical Legal Studies movement
(25) according to whom law is one among several cultural mechanisms by which holders of power seek to legitimate their domination. Drawing on related arguments developed in anthropology, sociology, and history, the critical legal scholars contend that law is an
(30) expression of power, but not, as held by the positivists, the power of the legitimate sovereign government. Rather, it is an expression of the power of elites who may have no legitimate authority, but who are intent on preserving the privileges of their race, class, or gender.
(35) In the mid-1970s, James Boyd White began to articulate yet another interdiseiplinary response to the traditional questions, and in so doing spawned what is now known as the Law and Literature movement White has insisted that law, particularly as it is
(40) interpreted in judicial opinions, should be understood as an essentially literary activity. Judicial opinions should be read and evaluated not primarily as political acts or as atte mpts to maximize society s wealth through efficient rules, but rather as artistic
(45) performances. And like all such performances, White argues, each judicial opinion attempts in its own way to promote a particular political or ethical value.
In the recent Justice as Translation, White argues that opinion-writing should be regarded as an act of
(50) "translation," and judges as "translators." As such, judges find themselves mediating between the authoritative legal text and the pressing legal problem that demands resolution. A judge must essentially "re-constitute" that text by fashioning a new one, which
(55) is faithful to the old text but also responsive to and informed by the conditions, constraints, and aspirations of the world in which the new legal problem has arisen.
9. Which one of the following best states the main idea of the passage?
(A) Within the last few decades, a number of novel approaches to jurisprudence have defined the nature of the law in diverse ways.
(B) Within the last few decades, changes in society and in the number and type of cases brought to court have necessitated new methods of interpreting the law.
(C) Of the many interdisciplinary approaches to jurisprudence that have surfaced in the last tow decades, the Law and Literature movement is the most intellectually coherent.
(D) The Law and Literature movement, first articulated by James Boyd White in the mid-1970s, represents a synthesis of the many theories of jurisprudence inspired by the social sciences
(E) Such traditional legal scholars as legal positivists and natural lawyers are increasingly on the defensive against attacks from younger, more progressive theorists.
10. According to the passage, judicial opinions have been described as each of the following EXCEPT:
(A) political statements
(B) arcane statements
(C) economic statements
(D) artistic performances
(E) acts of translation
11. Which one of the following statements is most compatible with the principles of the Critical Legal Studies movement as that movement is described in the passage?
(A) Laws governing the succession of power at the death of a head of state represent a synthesis of legal precedents, specific situations, and the values of lawmakers
(B) Laws allowing income tax deductions for charitable contributions, though ostensibly passed by lawmakers, were devised by and are perpetuated by the rich
(C) Laws governing the tariffs placed on imported goods must favor the continuation of mutually beneficial trade arrangements, even at the expense of long-standing legal precedent.
(D) Laws governing the treatment of the disadvantaged and powerless members of a given society are an accurate indication of that society s moral state.
(E) Laws controlling the electoral processes of a representative democracy have been devised by lawmakers to ensure the continuation of that governmental system.
12. Which one of the following does the passage mention as a similarity between the Critical Legal Studies movement and the Law and Literature movement?
(A) Both offer explanations of how elites maintain their hold on power.
(B) Both are logical extensions of either natural law or legal positivism.
(C) Both see economic and political primacy as the basis of all legitimate power
(D) Both rely on disciplines not traditionally connected with the study of law.
(E) Both see the practice of opinion-writing as a mediating activity.
13. Which one of the following can be inferred from the passage about the academic study of jurisprudence before the 1970s?
(A) It was concerned primarily with codifying and maintaining the privileges of elites.
(B) It rejected theories that interpreted law as an expression of a group s power.
(C) It seldom focused on how and by what authority judges arrived at opinions.
(D) It was concerned primarily with the study of law as an economic and moral agent.
(E) It was not concerned with such disciplines as anthropology and sociology.
14. Proponents of the Law and Literature movement would most likely agree with which one of the following statements concerning the relationship between the law and judges written opinions?
(A) The once-stable relationship between law and opinion-writing has been undermined by new and radical theoretical developments
(B) Only the most politically conservative of judges continue to base their opinions on natural law or on legal positivism.
(C) The occurrence of different legal situations requires a judge to adopt diverse theoretical approaches to opinion-writing.
(D) Different judges will not necessarily write the same sorts of opinions when confronted with the same legal situation.
(E) Judges who subseribe to divergent theories of jurisprudence will necessarily render divergent opinions.
15. Which one of the following phrases best describes the meaning of "re-constitute" as that word is used in line 54 of the passage?
(A) categorize and rephrase
(B) investigate and summarize
(C) interpret and refashion
(D) paraphrase and announce
(E) negotiate and synthesize
16. The primary purpose of the passage is to
(A) identify differing approaches
(B) discount a novel trend
(C) advocate traditional methods
(D) correct misinterpretations
(E) reconcile seeming inconsistencies
Since the early 1920s, most petroleum geologists have favored a biogenic theory for the formation of oil. According to this theory, organic matter became buried in sediments, and subsequent conditions of temperature
(5) and pressure over time transformed it into oil.
Since 1979 an opposing abiogenic theory about the origin of oil has been promulgated. According to this theory, what is now oil began as hydrocarbon compounds within the earth s mantle (the region
(10) between the core and the crust) during the formation of the earth. Oil was created when gasses rich in methanc, the lightest of the hydrocarbons, rose from the mantle through fractures and fauhs in the crust, carrying a significant amount of heavier hydrocarbons with them.
(15) As the gases encountered intermittent drops in pressure, the heavier hydrocarbons condensed, forming oil, and were deposited in reservoirs throughout the crust, Rock regions deformed by motions of the crustal plates provided the conduits and fracures necessary for the
(20) gases to rise through the crust.
Opponents of the abiogenic theory charge that hydrocarbons could not exist in the mantle, because high lemperatures would destroy or break them down. Advocates of the theory, however, point out that other
(25) types of carbon exist in the mantle: unoxidized carbon must exist there, because diamonds are formed within the mantle before being brought to the surface by eruptive processes. Proponents of the abiogenic theory also point to recent experimental work that suggests
(30) that the higher pressures within the mantle tend to offset the higher temperatures, allowing hydrocarbons, like unoxidized carbon, to continue to exist in the mantle.
If the abiogenic theory is correct, vast undiscovered
(35) reservoirs of oil and gas—undiscovened because the biogenic model precludes their existence—may in actuality exist. One company owned by the Swedish government has found the abiogenic theory so persuasive that it has started exploratory drilling for gas
(40) or oil in a granite formation called the Siljan Ring—not the best place to look for gas or oil if one belives they are derived from organic compounds, because granite forms from magma (molten rock) and contains no organic sediments. The ring was formed about 360
(45) million years ago when a large meteorite hit the 600-million-year-old granite that forms the base of the continental crust. The impact fractured the granite, and the Swedes believe that if oil comes from the mantle, it could have risen with methane gas through this now
(50) permeable rock. Fueling their optimism further is the fact that prior to the start of drilling, methane gas had been detected rising through the granite.
17. Which one of the following statements best expresses the main idea of the passage?
(A) Although the new abiogenic theory about the origin of oil is derived from the conventional biogenic theory, it suggests new types of locations for oil drilling.
(B) The small number of drilling companies that have responded to the new abiogenic theory about the origin of oil reflects the minimal level of acceptance the theory has met with in the scientific community.
(C) Although the new abiogenic theory about the origin of oil fails to explain several enigmas about oil reservoirs, it is superior to the conventional biogenic theory.
(D) Although it has yet to receive either support or refutation by data gathered from a drilling project, the new abiogenic theory about the origin of oil offers a plausible alternative to the conventional biogenic theory.
(E) Having answered objections about higher pressures in the earth s core, proponents of the new abiogenic theory have gained broad acceptance for their theory in the scientific community.
18. Which one of the following best describes the function of the third paragraph?
(A) It presents a view opposed to a theory and points out an internal contradiction in that opposing view.
(B) It describes a criticism of a theory and provides countervailing evidence to the criticism.
(C) It identifies a conflict between two views of a theory and revises both views.
(D) It explains an argument against a theory and shows it to be a valid criticism.
(E) It points out the correspondence between an argument against one theory and arguments against similar theories.
19. The passage suggests that the opponents of the abiogenic theory mentioned in the third paragraph would most probably agree with which one of the following statements?
(A) The formation of oil does not involve the condensation of hyarocarbons released from the earth s mantle.
(B) Large oil reserves are often found in locations that contain small amounts of organic matter.
(C) The eruptive processes by which diamonds are brought to the earth s surface are similar to those that aid in the formation of oil.
(D) Motions of the crustal plates often create the pressure necessary to transform organic matter into oil.
(E) The largest known oil reserves may have resulted from organic matter combining with heavier hydrocarbons carried by methane gas.
20. Which one of the following is most analogous to the situation described in the final paragraph?
(A) A new theory about the annual cycles of breeding and migration of the monarch butterfly has led scientists to look for similar patterns in other butterfly species.
(B) A new theory about the stage at which a star collapses into a black hole has led astronomers to search for evidence of black holes in parts of the universe where they had not previously searched.
(C) A new theory about how the emission of sulfur dioxide during coal-burning can be reduced has led several companies to develop desulfurization systems.
(D) A new theory about photosynthesis has convinced a research team to explore in new ways the various functions of the cell membrane in plant cells.
(E) A new theory about the distribution of metals in rock formations has convinced a silver-mining company to keep different types of records of its operations.
21. According to the passage all of the following are true of the Siljan Ring EXCEPT:
(A) It was formed from magma.
(B) It does not contain organic sediments.
(C) Its ring shape existed 500 million years ago.
(D) Methane gas has been detected rising through it
(E) It was shaped from the granite that makes up the base of the continental crust.
Most studies of recent Southeast Asian immigrants to the United States have focused on their adjustment to life in their adopted country and on the effects of leaving their homelands. James Tollefson s Alien
(5) Winds examines the resettlement process from a different perspective by investigating the educational programs offered in immigrant processing centers. Based on interviews transcripts from classes, essays by immigrants, personal visits to a teacher-training unit,
(10) and official government documents. Tollefson relies on an impressive amount and variety of documentation in making his arguments about processing centers educational programs.
Tollefson s main contention is that the emphasis
(15) placed on immediate employment and on teaching the values, attitudes, and behaviors that the training personnel think will help the immigrants adjust more easily to life in the United States in often counterproductive and demoralizing. Because of
(20) concerns that the immigrants be self-supporting as soon as possible, they are trained almost exclusively for low-level jobs that do not require English proficiency. In this respect. Tollefson claims. The processing centers suit the needs of employers more than they suit the
(25) long-term needs of the immigrant community. Tolletson also detects a fundamental flaw in the attempts by program educators to instill in the immigrants the traditionally Western principles of self-sufficiency and individual success. There efforts often
(30) have the effect of undermining the immigrants sense of community and, in doing so, sometimes isolate them from the moral support and even from business opportunities afforded by the immigrant community. The programs also encourage the immigrants to shed
(35) their cultural traditions and ethnic identity and adopt the lifestyles, beliefs, and characteristies of their adopted country if they wish to enter fully into the national life.
Tollefson notes that the ideological nature of these
(40) educational programs has roots in the turn-of-the-century educational programs designed to assimilate European immigrants into United States society. Tollefson provides a concise history of the assimilationist movement in immigrant education, in
(45) which European immigrants were encouraged to leave behind the ways of the Old World and to adopt instead the principles and practices of the New World.
Tollefson ably shows that the issues demanding real attention in the educational programs for Southeast
(50) Asian immigrants are not merely employment rates and government funding, but also the assumptions underpinning the educational values in the programs. He recommends many improvements for the programs, including giving the immigrants a stronger voice in
(55) determining their needs and how to meet them, redesigning the curricula, and emphasizing long-term language education and job training over immediate employment and the avoiding of public assistance, Unfortunately, though, Tollefson does not offer enough
(60) concreate solutions as to how these reforms could be carried out, despite his own descriptions of the complicated bureaucratic nature of the programs.
22. Which one of the following statements best expresses the main idea of the passage?
(A) Tollefson s focus on the economic and cultural factors involved in adjusting to a new country offers a significant departure from most studies of Southeast Asian immigration.
(B) In his analysis of educational programs for Southeast Asian immigrants. Tollefson fails to acknowledge many of the positive effects the programs have had on immigrants lives.
(C) Tollefson convincingly blames the philosophy underlying immigrant educational programs for some of the adjustment problems afflicting Southeast Asian immigrants.
(D) Tollefson s most significant contribution is his analysis of how Southeast Asian immigrants overcome the obstacles they encounter in immigrant educational programs.
(E) Tollefson tractes a gradual yet significant change in the attitudes held by processing center educators toward Southeast Asian immigrants.
23. With which one of the following statements concerning the educational programs of the immigration centers would Tollefson most probably agree?
(A) Although the programs offer adequate job training, they offer inadequate English training.
(B) Some of the programs attempts to improve the earning power of the immigrants cut them off from potential sources of income.
(C) Inclusion of the history of immigration in the United States in the programs currcula facilitates adjustment for the immigrants.
(D) Immigrants would benefit if instructors in the programs were better prepared to teach the curricula developed in the teacher-training courses.
(E) The programs curricula should be redesigned to include greater emphasis on the shared values. beliefs, and practices in the United States.
24. Which one of the following best describes the opinion of the author of the passage with respect to Tollefson s work?
(A) thorough but misguided
(B) innovative but incomplete
(C) novel but contradictory
(D) illuminating but unappreciated
(E) well documented but unoriginal
25. The passage suggests that which one of the following is an assumption underlying the educational approach in immigrant processing centers?
(A) There is a set of values and behaviors that if adopted by immigrants, facilitate adjustment to United States society
(B) When recent immigrants are self-supporting rather than supported by public assistance, they tend to gain English proficiency more quickly
(C) Immediate employment tends to undermine the immigrants sense of community with each other
(D) Long-term success for immigrants is best achieved by encouraging the immigrants to maintain a strong sense of community.
(E) The principles of self-sufficiency and individual success are central to Southeast Asian culture and ethnicity.
26. Which one of the following best describes the function of the first paragraph of the passage?
(A) It provides the scholarly context for Tollefson s study and a description of his methodology
(B) It compares Tollefson s study to other works and presents the main argument of his study.
(C) It compares the types of documents Tollefson uses to those used in other studies
(D) It presents the accepted meory on Tollefson s topic and the method by which Tollefson challenges it
(E) It argues for the analytical and technical superiority of Tollefson s study over other works on the topic
27. The author of the passage refers to Tollefson s descriptions of the bureaucratic nature of the immigrant educational programs in the fourth paragraph most probably in order to
(A) criticize Tollefson s decision to combine a description of the bureaucracies with suggestions for improvement.
(B) emphasize the author s disappointment in Tollefson s overly general recommendations for improvements to the programs.
(C) point out the mony of Tollefson concluding his study with suggestions for drastic changes in the programs
(D) support a contention that Tollefson s recommendations for improvements do not focus on the real sources of the programs problems
(E) suggest a parallel between the complexity of the bureaucracies and the complexity of Tollefson s arguments