Time 35 minutes 25 Questions
Directions: The questions in this section are based on the reasoning contained in brief statements or passages. For some questions, more than one of the choices could conceivably answer the question. However, you are to choose the best answer; that is, the response that most accurately and completely answers the question. You should not make assumptions that are by commonsense standards implausible, superfluous, or incompatible with the passage. After you have chosen the best answer, blacken the corresponding space on your answer sheet.
1. Mr. West: Well, Ms. Smith, by how much do you plan to increase your donation to the cultural society this year? You know how many worthwhile projects we do.
Ms. Smith: I’m not so sure of that. I was very upset about the statue you purchased last month. I think I’ll give no more money to your cause.
Mr. West: That’s all right: we’ll just put you down for the same amount that you gave last year.
Which one of the following words or phrases has been misinterpreted in the conversation?
(B) “you know”
(D) “no more”（D）
(E) “same amount”
2. Handwriting analysis—also known as graphology—is a poor way to predict personality types, even though it is used by 3,000 United States firms and by a majority of European companies. In a recent study, five graphologists scored no better than chance in predicting the occupations of forty professionals.
Which one of the following is an assumption necessary to the argument?
(A) People in the same occupation usually do not have the same personality type.
(B) Graphology is an effective means of predicting personality types in non-business contexts.
(C) There are more United States firms that do not use graphology than all the United States and European firms that do use it.
(D) There are several other techniques for predicting personality types that are more accurate than graphology.（E）
(E) There is a correspondence between type of personality and choice of occupation.
The simple facts are these: the number of people killed each year by grizzly bears is about the same as the number of people killed by lightning on golf courses. And the number of people killed by lightning on golf courses each year is about the same as the number of people electrocuted by electric blenders. All the horrible myths and gruesome stories aside, therefore, a grizzly bear is in fact about as dangerous as an electric blender or a game of golf.
3. Which one of the following is an assumption that the author relies upon in the passage?
(A) Most incidents involving grizzly bears are fatal.
(B) Grizzly bears are no longer the danger they once were.
(C) The number of fatalities per year is an adequate indication of something’s dangerousness.
(D) A golf course is a particularly dangerous place to be in a thunderstorm.（C）
(E) Something is dangerous only if it results in death in the majority of cases.
4. Which one of the following, if true, would most effectively undermine the author’s argument?
(A) Although the number of people killed by lightning on golf courses each year is very small, the total number of lightning fatalities is many times greater.
(B) Electric blenders are among the safest household appliances; were the author to compare fatalities from electrical appliances in general, she would get a much higher figure.
(C) Most people would rather take their chances with blenders and golf games than with grizzly bears.
(D) Bears in general—including black, brown, and cinnamon bears, as well as grizzly bears—kill many more people than do electric blenders.（E）
(E) Statistics show that the number of times people use electric blenders each year exceeds the number of times people play golf each year, which in turn far exceeds the number of contacts people have with grizzly bears each year.
5. Emperor: The enemy empire across the sea has harassed us for centuries. I want to conquer it and stop it once and for all. What advice can you give me?
Admiral: If you cross the sea, a mighty empire will fall.
Emperor: In that case, prepare the troops. We set sail tonight.
Of the following, the strongest criticism of the Emperor’s decision to invade would be that it
(A) is certain to lead to the emperor’s defeat
(B) is based on opinion rather than objective facts about troop strength
(C) contradicts the Admiral’s statement
(D) fails to consider fully the possible meanings of the Admiral’s advice（D）
(E) is a futile strategy for solving the problem at hand
6. No senator spoke at the convention unless he or she was a Democrat. No Democrat both spoke at the convention and was a senator.
Which one of the following conclusions can be correctly drawn from the statements above?
(A) No one but senators spoke at the convention.
(B) No Democrat spoke at the convention.
(C) Only Democrats spoke at the convention.
(D) No senator spoke at the convention.（D）
(E) Some Democrat senators spoke at the convention.
7. If Sarah were a concert pianist for a major orchestra, she would be famous. She is not a concert pianist since she is not famous.
The conclusion above is unsound because the author does not consider that
(A) Sarah could be a famous actress.
(B) Sarah could be a harpist for a major orchestra.
(C) Sarah could be a pianist with a rock group.
(D) Sarah could be a concert pianist with a minor orchestra.（D）
(E) Sarah could be famous for another reason.
8. Neuroscientists are making progress in discovering more about the cause of Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimer’s disease patients suffer from dementia and sever memory loss. Autopsies performed on such patients have revealed the presence of brain lesions caused by abnormal protein deposits. Similar deposits are also found in the brains of elderly patients who do not suffer from Alzheimer’s disease. It follows that everyone who lives long enough will eventually develop Alzheimer’s disease.
Which one of the following statements, if true, most seriously undermines the conclusion that everyone who lives long enough will eventually develop Alzheimer’s disease?
(A) The lesions found in the brains of non-Alzheimer’s disease patients are far less extensive than those found in the brains of Alzheimer’s disease patients.
(B) The developing brain produces a greater number of cells than it will ever use. The extra cells are later destroyed by what biologists call “programmed cell death.”
(C) The procedure that allows scientists to discover the presence of protein deposits during an autopsy is not yet refined enough to ensure detection of the lesions in all patients.
(D) Autopsies have shown that some people lack the chemical necessary for protein deposits to cause brain lesions.（D）
(E) Though most Alzheimer’s disease patients develop the disease when they are in their late fifties to early seventies, the frequency of patients who develop the disease in their forties is on the rise.
9. Free public education is the best form of education there is. Therefore, we must fight to ensure its continued existence; that is, we must be ready to defend the principle of equality of educational opportunity. Because this principle is we worth defending, it is clear that free public education is better than any other form of education.
Which one of the following illustrates the same weak reasoning as found in the passage?
(A) I love music, and that’s why I listen to it constantly. I have my stereo or radio on every waking minute. Since I play music all the time, I must really love it.
(B) Books are my most valuable possessions. My books are like my friends—each pleases me in different ways. Just as I would give up everything to save my friends, so too with my books.
(C) I would much rather be poor and respected than be rich and despised. To have the respect of others is far more valuable than to have millions of dollars.
(D) I have never been betrayed by any of my friends. They have been true to me through good times and bad. Therefore I will never betray any of my friends.（A）
(E) Because every plant I have ever seen has green leaves, I have concluded that all plants must have green leaves. This looks like a plant but it does not have green leaves, so it cannot be a plant.
10. Some people say that the scarcity of food is a function of the finite limits of the earth’s resources, coupled with a relentless rate of population growth. This analysis fails to recognize, however, that much of the world’s agricultural resources are used to feed livestock instead of people. In the United States, for example, almost one-half of the agricultural acreage is devoted to crops fed to livestock. A steer reduces twenty-one pounds of inexpensive grain to one pound of expensive meat. Thus, the scarcity of food is not merely a function of limited resources and population growth.
Which one of the following is an assumption that would allow the conclusion in the argument to be properly drawn?
(A) People prefer eating meat to eating grain.
(B) Meat is twenty-one times more expensive than grain.
(C) The limits of the earth’s agricultural resources are not finite.
(D) More than one-half of the agricultural acreage in the United States is devoted to crops fed to humans.（E）
(E) Growing crops for human consumption on the acreage currently devoted to crops for livestock will yield more food for more people.
11. Hanifah: A recent survey shows that there are fewer people who drive only on weekends than there are people who drive to work each weekday. As a result, weekend-only drives are involved in fewer accidents. Therefore, insurance rates should be adjusted so that rates would be significantly higher for the regular commuters.
Katsu: I can’t agree with your conclusion. The same study also showed that, although weekend-only drives are involved in fewer accidents, when considered on the basis of accidents-per-mile-driven their records are worse than those of regular commuters. Therefore, insurance rates should be adjusted to increase the rates of weekend-only drivers over those of regular commuters.
In the conversation above, Katsu does which one of the following?
(A) Katsu disagrees with each of the premises of the argument that Hanifah offers.
(B) Katsu cites additional evidence stating that weekend-only drivers are actually involved in a greater number of accidents than regular commuters.
(C) Katsu accuses Hanifah of using inaccurate statistical information.
(D) Katsu proves that Hanifah didn’t read the entire report that was cited.（E）
(E) Katsu disagrees with Hanifah over how accident records are to be evaluated for insurance rates.
12. If Country X does not intervene militarily in Country Y, then the whole region will definitely fall under enemy influence.
It most logically follows from the statement above that, if Country X does intervene militarily in Country Y, then the whole region
(A) Will definitely fall under enemy influence
(B) Will probably fall under enemy influence
(C) Will probably not fall under enemy influence
(D) Will definitely not fall under enemy influence（E）
(E) May or may not fall under enemy influence
13. Top college graduates are having more difficulty demonstrating their superiority to prospective employers than did the top students of twenty years ago when an honors degree was distinction enough. Today’s employers are less impressed with the honors degree. Twenty years ago no more than 10 percent of a given class graduated with honors. Today, however, because of grade inflation, the honors degree goes to more than 50 percent of a graduating class. Therefore, to restore confidence in the degrees they award, colleges must take steps to control grade inflation.
Which one of the following is an assumption that, if true, would support the conclusion in the passage?
(A) Today’s students are not higher achievers than the students of twenty years ago.
(B) Awarding too many honors degrees causes colleges to inflate grades.
(C) Today’s employers rely on honors ranking in making their hiring decisions.
(D) It is not easy for students with low grades to obtain jobs.（A）
(E) Colleges must make employers aware of the criteria used to determine who receives an honors degree.
14. Either Perry’s faction or Tucker’s faction, but not both, will win control of the government. If Perry’s faction wins, the nation will suffer economically. If Tucker’s faction wins, the nation will suffer militarily.
Given the statements in the passage, which one of the following statements must be true?
(A) It is possible, but not certain, that the nation will neither suffer economically nor suffer militarily.
(B) If the nation suffers economically, it is certain that Perry’s faction has won control of the government.
(C) It is certain that the nation will suffer either economically or militarily, and also certain that it will not suffer both.
(D) If the nation suffers militarily, it is possible, but not certain, that Tucker’s faction has won control of the government.（D）
(E) If the nation suffers both economically and militarily, it is certain that neither Perry’s faction nor Tucker’s has won control of the government.
15. One of the more reliable methods of determining regional climatic conditions in prehistoric periods is to examine plant pollen trapped in glacial ice during ancient times. By comparing such pollen samples with spores taken from modern vegetation, scientists can figure out approximately what the weather was like at the time of pollen deposition. Furthermore, by submitting the prehistoric samples to radiocarbon dating techniques, we can also determine when certain climatic conditions were prevalent in that portion of the globe.
Which one of the following may be inferred from the information in the passage?
(A) The earth has undergone several glacial periods.
(B) Radiocarbon dating can be corroborated by glacial evidence.
(C) Similarities between prehistoric and contemporary climates do not exist.
(D) Pollen deposition is a fairly continuous process.（E）
(E) Certain flora are reliably associated with particular climatic conditions.
16. Investigators concluded that human failure was not responsible for the fatal airplane crash last August, and since that time new and more stringent rules for identifying and reporting mechanical problems have been in effect. That accounts for the fact that reports of airplane mechanical problems have increased in frequency by 50 percent since last August.
Which one of the following is an assumption underlying the argument in the passage?
(A) Airplane travel is still relatively safe, despite the increase in reported mechanical problems.
(B) Mechanical problems in airplanes have increased dramatically since last August.
(C) Mechanical problems in airplanes have not increased by 50 percent since last August.
(D) Airlines are less reluctant to report mechanical problems than they previously were.（C）
(E) Mechanical problems in airplanes have become easier to detect since last August.
17. The peculiar evil of silencing the expression of an opinion is that it robs the human race. It takes from posterity, as well as the existing generation, and from those who dissent from the opinion even more than from those who hold it. If the opinion is right, they are deprived of the opportunity of exchanging error for truth; if it is wrong, they lose what is almost as great a benefit: the clearer perception and livelier impression of truth, produced by its collision with error.
Which one of the following best expresses the conclusion presented in the argument?
(A) Silencing the expression of an opinion is robbing the human race.
(B) Silencing the expression of an opinion harms those who dissent more than those who agree.
(C) Anyone who agrees with an opinion would not want to silence its expression.
(D) Gaining a clearer perception and livelier impression of truth is a great benefit.（A）
(E) The greatest benefit is the opportunity of exchanging truth for error.
18. Brushing your teeth regularly, no matter which toothpaste you use, will reduce your chances of tooth decay. Scientists have concluded that, when you brush, you reduce tooth decay by removing the film of plaque that forms on teeth and gums. So, you can forget about fluorides: brush your teeth carefully and say goodbye to cavities.
Which one of the following is a criticism of the reasoning in the argument?
(A) Brushing with fluoride toothpaste has been shown to reduce tooth decay.
(B) The fact that brushing will reduce tooth decay does not show that fluorides are of no value.
(C) Few people adequately remove plaque by brushing.
(D) People have plaque on their teeth most of the time.（B）
(E) Scientists have been wrong about fluorides.
19. Some good cooks are gourmet cooks who pride themselves on always using extravagantly rich ingredients in elaborate recipes. Some good cooks can be characterized as fast-food cooks. They may use rich ingredients as long as the recipes are easy to follow and take little time. Other good cooks are health food enthusiasts, who are concerned primarily with the nutritional value of food. But even though not all good cooks are big eaters, they all enjoy preparing and serving food.
If the information in the passage is true, which one of the following CANNOT be true?
(A) Most good cooks do not use extravagantly rich ingredients.
(B) Everyone who enjoys preparing and serving food is a good cook.
(C) More good cooks who use extravagantly rich ingredients are big eaters than are good cooks who do not use such ingredients.
(D) There are fewer good cooks who enjoy serving and preparing food than there are good cooks who are big eaters.（D）
(E) Gourmet cooks, fast-food cooks, and cooks who are health food enthusiasts are all big eaters.
20. Most discussions of the factors contributing to improvements in public health greatly underestimate the influence of the values held by individuals. This influence is indicated by the fact that the astonishing decline in mortality from infectious disease during the past century was primarily due to an improvement in living conditions. To a substantial degree, these improvements depended on the emphasis by an increasing share of the population on cleanliness, prudence, and moderation.
The main point of the passage is made primarily by
(A) analyzing existing data on medical practices and health outcomes
(B) presenting a set of related cause-and-effect assertions
(C) applying several general principles to a specific case
(D) presenting a general observation and supporting it with several specific examples（B）
(E) refuting in detail a commonly accepted argument
If the city council institutes new parking regulations, city revenues will surely increase, since studies have conclusively shown that, if such parking regulations are put into effect, there is an increase in parking violations, and an increase in parking violations will result in a greater number of parking fines collected.
21. Which one of the following is closest, in terms of its logical features, to the reasoning used in the argument above?
(A) Last year’s increase in revenues can be easily explained. That was the year the city council instituted new parking regulations. No doubt the new law brought with it an increase in the number of parking violations.
(B) If taxes were increased, this act would naturally result in increased revenues for the city, and increased revenues would make some desirable social programs possible. So, if taxes were increased, some desirable social programs would become possible.
(C) Henry says that, if the city council goes into closed session, an important matter of personnel policy is being discussed. However, no personnel matters were discussed at the council meeting, so if Henry is right, the council did not go into closed session.
(D) All cars parked on the north side of the street were ticketed last night, and the same cars were towed away this morning. So beware! A car ticketed in this city also gets towed away.（B）
(E) Allen says that, if the city council institutes new parking regulations, it is unlikely that revenues for the city will increase. If Allen is right, then the parking regulation plan should not be instituted.
22. If the statements in the passage are true, which one of the following must also be true?
(A) Unless there is an increase in the number of parking violations in the city, city revenues will not increase.
(B) If the city council institutes new parking regulations, the council will fall from favor with the citizens.
(C) The city council will institute new parking regulations only if an increase in city revenues can be expected to result.
(D) If the city council’s new regulations cause more parking violators to be ticketed, the city revenues will increase.（D）
(E) Unless the city institutes a complex system of parking regulations, the city cannot expect traffic violations to increase.
23. The function of government is to satisfy the genuine wants of the masses, and government cannot satisfy those wants unless it is informed about what those wants are. Freedom of speech ensures that such information will reach the ears of government officials. Therefore, freedom of speech is indispensable for a healthy state.
Which one of the following, if true, would NOT undermine the conclusion of the argument?
(A) People most often do not know what they genuinely want.
(B) Freedom of speech tends ultimately to undermine social order, and social order is a prerequisite for satisfying the wants of the masses.
(C) The proper function of government is not to satisfy wants, but to provide equality of opportunity.
(D) Freedom of speech is not sufficient for satisfying the wants of the masses: social order is necessary as well.（D）
(E) Rulers already know what the people want.
24. An unbiased observer of everyday encounters in Western societies would surely not find many instances of unkindness by people under 65 toward people over 65. There are undoubtedly incidents of unkindness based on age, and these warrant reproof. However, the very fact that such reproof occurs and is generally accepted implies that our Western societies basically respect the elderly. The same conclusion can be drawn from a recent survey finding: 71 percent of the under 65 population agreed with the statement that “people over 65 receive too little respect from society”, while only 44 percent of the over-65 population, the target of the alleged irreverence agreed with it.
The author concludes that Western societies basically respect the elderly partly because
(A) people under 65 are just as kind to people over 65 as they are to people of their own age group
(B) survey data suggest that fewer people over 65 than under 65 get too little respect
(C) disrespect for the elderly does not go so far as to result in actual harm
(D) survey data suggest that people over 65 are more aware of incidents involving disrespect to the elderly than are people under 65（E）
(E) incidents of unkindness to the elderly are neither common nor generally accepted in Western societies
25. These days, everyone talks about being too busy. But all this busyness does not seem to result in things getting done. Just as many tasks are still left uncompleted, phone calls unreturned, and appointments missed as there were in the days before this outbreak of busyness. Therefore, people must not be as busy as they claim.
Which one of the following, if true, would most seriously weaken the conclusion in the passage?
(A) These days, looking busy is a status symbol.
(B) People have to do much more these days than before the so-called outbreak of busyness.
(C) People waste so much time talking about being busy that they fail to get things done.
(D) Just as many things are getting done now as before the so-called outbreak of busyness.（B）
(E) People have more leisure time these days than before the so-called outbreak of busyness.