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      SECTION IV 
  Time—35 minutes     
   26 Questions 
  Directions: The questions in this section are based on the reasoning contained in brief statements or passages. For some questions more than one of the choices could conceivably answer the question. However, you are to choose the best answer. that is the response that most accurately and completely answers the question. You should not make assumptions that are bycommonsense standards implausible, superfluous or incompatible with the passage. After you have chosen the best answer blacken the corresponding space on your answer sheet 
  1. There-year-old Sara and her playmate Michael are both ill and have the same symptoms. Since they play together every afternoon. Sara probably has the same illness as Michael does. Since Michaels definitely does not have a dtreptococcal infection, despite his having some symptoms of one, the illness that Sara has is definitely not a streptococcal infection either. 

  The reasoning in the argument is flawed because the argumetn 
 (A) presupposes what it sets out to prove 

  (B) mistatkes the cause of a particular phenomenon for the effect of that phenomenon 

  (C) fails to distinguish between acute streptococcal infections on the one hand, and less severe streptococcal infections on the other 

  (D) treats evidence that the conclusion is probably true as if that evidence establishes the certainty of the conclusion 

  (E) makes a general claim based on particular examples that do not adequately represent the respective groups that they are each intended to represent 

  2. Lambert: The proposal to raise gasoline taxes to support mass transit networks is unfair. Why should drivers who will never use train or bus lines be forced to pay for them? 

  Keziah: You have misunderstood. The government has always spent far more, per user, from general revenue sources to fund highways than to fund mass transit. The additional revenue from the gasoline tax will simply allow the government to make its distribution of transportaion funds more equitable. 
  Keziah uses which one of the following argumentative strategies in replying to Lambert? 

  (A) elaborating the context of the issue in order to place the proposal in a more favorable light 

  (B) appealing to the principle that what benefits society as a whole benefits all individuals within that society 

  (C) challenging the presupposition that fairness is an appropriate criterion on which to judge the matter 

  (D) demonstrating that the proposed tax increase will not result in increased expenses for drivers 

  (E) declining to argue a point with someone who is poorly informed on the matter under discussion  

  3. The number of calories in a gram of refined cane sugar is the same as in an equal amount of fructose,the natural sugar found in fruits and vegetables. Therefore, a piece of candy made with a given amount of refined cane sugar is no higher in calories than a piece of fruit that contains an equal amount of fructose 

  The reasoning in the argument is flawed because the argument 

  (A) fails to consider the possibility that fruit might contain noncaloric nutrients that candy does not contain 

  (B) presupposes that all candy is made with similar amounts of sugar 

  (C) confuses one kind of sugar with another 

  (D) presupposes what it sets out to establish, that fruit does not differ from sugar-based candy in the number of calories each contains 

  (E) overlooks the possibility that sugar might not be the only calorie-containing ingredient in candy or fruit 

  4. In order to increase production. ABC Company should implement a flextime schedule, which would allow individual employees some flexibility in deciding when to begin and end their workday. Studies have shown that working under flextime schedules is associated with increased employee morale. 

  The argument depends on the assumption that   

  (A) the employees who prefer a flextime schedule are the most productive employees at ABC Compan 

  (B) an increase in the morale of ABC Company’s employees could lead to increased production  

  (C) flextime schedules tend to be associated with reduced lateness and absenteeism 

  (D) employees are most productive during the part of the day when all employees are present 

  (E) companies that are in competition with ABC Company also use a flextime schedule 

  5. Attorneys for a criminal defendant charged that the government, in a coverup, had destroyed evidence that would have supported the defendant in a case. The government replied that there is no evidence that would even tend to support the defendant in the case. 

  Which one of the following is the most accurate evaluation of the government’s reply? 

  (A) It leaves open the question of whether the government had destroyed such evidence. 

  (B) It establishes that the attorneys’ charge is an exaggeration. 

  (C) It shows that the attorneys did not know whether their charge was true. 
 (D) It demonstrates the government’s failure to search for evidence in its files. 

  (E) If true, it effectively disproves the charge made on behalf of the defendant. 

  6. Videocassette recorders (VCRs) enable people to watch movies at home on videotape. People who own VCRs go to movie theaters more often than do people who do not own VCRs. Contrary to popular belief, therefore, owning a VCR actually stimulates people to go to movie theaters more often than they otherwise would. 

  The argument is most vulnerable to criticism on the grounds that it 

  (A) concludes that a claim must be false because of the mere absence of evidence in its favor 

  (B) cites, in support of the conclusion evidence that is inconsistent with other information that is provided 

  (C) fails to establish that the phenomena interpreted as cause and effect are not both direct effects of some other factor 

  (D) takes a condition that by itself guarantees the occurrence of a certain phenomenon to be a condition that therefore must be met for that phenomenon to occur 
(E) bases a broad claim about the behavior of people in general on a comparison between two groups of people that together include only a small proportion of people overall

  7. The cumbersome spears that were the principal weapons used by certain tribes in the early Bronze Age precluded widespread casualties during intertribal conflicts. But the comparatively high number of warrior tombs found in recent excavations of the same tribes’ late Bronze Age settlements indicates that in the late Bronze Age, wars between these tribes were frequent, and the casualty rate was high. Hence some archaeologists claim that by the late Bronze Age, these tribes had developed new methods of warfare designed to inflict many casualties.  

  Which one of the following, if true most supports the archaeologists’ claim? 

  (A) A royal tomb dating to the early Bronze Age contained pottery depicting battle scenes in which warriors use spears. 

  (B) There is evidence that many buildings dating to the late Bronze Age were built by prisoners of war taken in battles between enemy tribes.  
(C) Scenes of violent warfare, painted in bright hues, frequently appear on pottery that has been found in some early Bronze Age tombs of warriors. 

  (D) Some tombs of warriors dating to the late Bronze Age contain armor and weapons that anthropologists believe were trophies taken from enemies in   battle. 

  (E) The marks on the bones of many of the late Bronze Age warriors whose tombs were excavated are consistent with the kind of wounds inflicted by arrowheads also found in many late Bronze Age settlements. 


  8. Based on data collected from policyholders, life insurance companies have developed tables that list standard weight ranges for various heights. Policyholders whose weight fell within the range given for their height lived longer than those whose weight fell outside their given range. Therefore, if people whose weight falls outside their given range modified their weight to fall within that range, their overall life expectancies would improve. 
  Which one of the following is an assumption on which the argument relies? 
(A) Some people would be unwilling to modify their weights solely to increase the general population’s overall life expectancies. 

  (B) Life insurance companies intended their tables to guide individuals in adjusting their weights in order to increase their life spans. 

  (C) The tables include data gathered from policyholders whose deaths resulted from accidents in addition to those whose deaths resulted from natural   causes. 

  (D) Holders of life insurance policies do not have longer overall life expectancies than the general population. 

  (E) People’s efforts to modify their weight to conform to a given range would not damage their health enough to decrease their overall life ecpectancies.   

  Which one of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument?   

  (A) Pluto was not discovered until 1930 

  (B) There is a belt of comets beyond the orbit of Pluto with powerful gravitatinal pull. 

  (C) Neither Neptune nor Pluto is as massive as Uranus. 
  (D) The force the Sun exerts on Uranus is weaker than the force it exerts on the inner planets. 

  (E) Uranus’ orbit is closer to Neptune’s orbit than it is to Pluto’s.
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