| SECTION I
Directions： Each passage in this section is followed by a group of questions to be answered on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage. For some of the questions, more than one of the choices could conceivably answer the question. However, you are to choose the best answer, that is, the response that most accurately and completely answers the question, and blacken the corresponding space on your answer sheet.
There is substantial evidence that by 1926, with the publication of The Weary Blues, Langston Hughes had broken with two well-established traditions in African American literature. In The Weary Blues, Hughes chose to modify the traditions that decreed that African American literature must promote racial acceptance and integration, and that, in order to do so, it must reflect and understanding and mastery of Western European literary techniques and styles. Necessarily excluded by this decree, linguistically and thematically, was the vast amount of secular folk material in the oral tradition that had been created by Black people in the years of slavery and after. It might be pointed out that even the spirituals or "sorrow songs" of the slaves-as distinct from their secular songs and stories-had been Europeanized to make them acceptable within these African American traditions after the Civil War. In 1862 northern White writers had commented favorably on the unique and provocative melodies of these "sorrow songs" when they first heard them sung by slaves in the Carolina sea islands. But by 1916, ten years before the publication of The Weary Blues, Hurry T. Burleigh, the Black baritone soloist at New York s ultrafashionable Saint George s Episcopal Chruch, had published Jubilee Songs of the United States, with every spiritual arranged so that a concert singer could sing it "in the manner of an art song." Clearly, the artistic work of Black people could be used to promote racial acceptance and integration only on the condition that it became Europeanized.
Even more than his rebellion against this restrictive tradition in African American art, Hughes s expression of the vibrant folk culture of Black people established his writing as a landmark in the history of African American literature. Most of his folk poems have the distinctive marks of this folk culture's oral tradition： they contain many instances of naming and enumeration, considerable hyperbole and understatement, and a strong infusion of street-talk rhyming. There is a deceptive veil of artlessness in these poems. Hughes prided himself on being an impromptu and impressionistic writer of poetry. His, he insisted, was not an artfully constructed poetry. Yet an analysis of his dramatic monologues and other poems reveals that his poetry was carefully and artfully crafted. In his folk poetry we find features common to all folk literature, such as dramatic ellipsis, narrative compression, rhythmic repetition, and monosyllabic emphasis. The peculiar mixture of irony and humor we find in his writing is a distinguishing feature of his folk poetry. Together, these aspects of Hughes s writing helped to modify the previous restrictions on the techniques and subject matter of Black writers and consequently to broaden the linguistic and thematic range of African American literature.
1. The author mentions which one of the following as an example of the influence of Black folk culture on Hughes s poetry？
（A） his exploitation of ambiguous and deceptive meanings
（B） his care and craft in composing poems
（C） his use of naming and enumeration
（D） his use of first-person narrative
（E） his strong religious beliefs
2. The author suggests that the "deceptive veil" （line 42） in Hughes s poetry obscures
（A） evidence of his use of oral techniques in his poetry
（B） evidence of his thoughtful deliberation in composing his poems
（C） his scrupulous concern for representative details in his poetry
（D） his incorporation of Western European literary techniques in his poetry
（E） his engagement with social and political issues rather than aesthetic ones.
3. With which one of the following statements regarding Jubilee Songs of the United States would the author be most likely to agree？
（A） Its publication marked an advance in the intrinsic quality of African American art.
（B） It paved the way for publication of Hughes s The Weary Blues by making African American art fashionable.
（C） It was an authentic replication of African American spirituals and "sorrow songs".
（D） It demonstrated the extent to which spirituals were adapted in order to make them more broadly accepted.
（E） It was to the spiritual what Hughes s The Weary Blues was to secular songs and stories.
4. The author most probably mentions the reactions of northern White writers to non-Europeanized "sorrow songs" in order to
（A） indicate that modes of expression acceptable in the context of slavery in the South were acceptable only to a small number of White writers in the North after the Civil War.
（B） contrast White writers earlier appreciation of these songs with the growing tendency after the Civil War to regard Europeanized versions of the songs as more acceptable.
（C） show that the requirement that such songs be Europeanized was internal to the African American tradition and was unrelated to the literary standards or attitudes of White writers.
（D） demonstrate that such songs in their non- Europeanized form were more imaginative.
（E） suggest that White writers benefited more from exposure to African American art forms than Black writers did from exposure to European art forms.
5. The passage suggests that the author would be most likely to agree with which one of the following statements about the requirement that Black writers employ Western European literary techniques？
（A） The requirement was imposed more for social than for aesthetic reasons.
（B） The requirement was a relatively unimportant aspect of the African American tradition.
（C） The requirement was the chief reason for Hughes s success as a writer.
（D） The requirement was appropriate for some forms of expression but not for others.
（E） The requirement was never as strong as it may have appeared to be.
6. Which one of the following aspects of Hughes s poetry does the author appear to value most highly？
（A） its novelty compared to other works of African American literature.
（B） its subtle understatement compared to that of other kinds of folk literature.
（C） its virtuosity in adapting musical forms to language.
（D） its expression of the folk culture of Black people.
（E） its universality of appeal achieved through the adoption of colloquial expressions.
Historians generally agree that, of the great modern innovations, the railroad had the most far-reaching impact on major events in the United States in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, particularly on the Industrial Revolution. There is, however, considerable disagreement among cultural historians regarding public attitudes toward the railroad, both at its inception in the 1830s and reached the zenith of its popularity in the United States. In a recent book, John Stilgoe has addressed this issue by arguing that the "romantic-era distrust" of the railroad that he claims was present during the 1830s vanished in the decades after 1880. But the argument he provides in support of this position is unconvincing.
What Stilgoe calls "romantic-era distrust" was in fact the reaction of a minority of writer, artistes, and intellectuals who distrusted the railroad not so much for what it was as for what it signified. Thoreau and Hawthorne appreciated, even admired, an improved means of moving things and people from one place to another. What these writers and others were concerned about was not the new machinery as such, but the new kind of economy, social order, and culture that it prefigured. In addition, Stilgoe is wrong to imply that the critical attitude of these writers was typical of the period： their distrust was largely a reaction against the prevailing attitude in the 1830s that the railroad was an unqualified improvement.
Stilgoe s assertion that the ambivalence toward the railroad exhibited by writers like Hawthorne and Thoreau disappeared after the 1880s is also misleading. In support of this thesis, Stilgoe has unearthed an impressive volume of material, the work of hitherto unknown illustrators, journalists, and novelists, all devotees of the railroad； but it is not clear what this new material proves except perhaps that the works of popular culture greatly expanded at the time. The volume of the material proves nothing if Stilgoe s point is that the earlier distrust of a minority of intellectuals did not endure beyond the 1880s, and, oddly, much of Stilgoe s other evidence indicates that it did. When he glances at the treatment of railroads by writers like Henry James, Sinclair Lewis, or F.Scott Fitzgerald, what comes through in spite of Stilgoe s analysis is remarkably like Thoreau s feeling of contrariety and ambivalence. （Had he looked at the work of Frank Norris, Eugene O Neill, or Henry Adams, Stilgoe s case would have been much stronger.） The point is that the sharp contrast between the enthusiastic supporters of the railroad in the 1830s and the minority of intellectual dissenters during that period extended into the 1880s and beyond.
7. The passage provides information to answer all of the following questions EXCEPT：
（A） During what period did the railroad reach the zenith of its popularity in the United States？
（B） How extensive was the impact of the railroad on the Industrial Revolution in the United States, relative to that of other modern innovations？
（C） Who are some of the writers of the 1830s who expressed ambivalence toward the railroad？
（D） In what way could Stilgoe have strengthened his argument regarding intellectuals attitudes toward the railroad in the years after the 1880s？
（E） What arguments did the writers after the 1880s, as cited by Stilgoe, offer to justify their support for the railroad？
8. According to the author of the passage, Stilgoe uses the phrase "romantic-era distrust" （line 13） to imply that the view he is referring to was
（A） the attitude of a minority of intellectuals toward technological innovation that began after 1830.
（B） a commonly held attitude toward the railroad during the 1830s.
（C） an ambivalent view of the railroad expressed by many poets and novelists between 1880 and 1930.
（D） a critique of social and economic developments during the 1830s by a minority of intellectuals.
（E） an attitude toward the railroad that was disseminated by works of popular culture after 1880.
9. According to the author, the attitude toward the railroad that was reflected in writings of Henry James, Sinclair Lewis, and F. Scott Fitzgerald was
（A） influenced by the writings of Frank Norris, Eugene O Neill, and Henry Adams
（B） similar to that of the minority of writers who had expressed ambivalence toward the railroad prior to the 1880s
（C） consistent with the public attitudes toward the railroad that were reflected in works of popular culture after the 1880s
（D） largely a reaction to the works of writers who had been severely critical of the railroad in the 1830s
（E） consistent with the prevailing attitude toward the railroad during the 1830s.
10. It can be inferred from the passage that the author uses the phrase "works of popular culture" （line 41） primarily to refer to the
（A） work of a large group of writers that was published between 1880 and 1930 and that in Stilgoe s view was highly critical of the railroad.
（B） work of writers who were heavily influenced by Hawthorne and Thoreau
（C） large volume of writing produced by Henry Adams, Sinclair Lewis, and Eugene O Neill
（D） work of journalists, novelists, and illustrators who were responsible for creating enthusiasm for the railroad during the 1830s
（E） work of journalists, novelists, and illustrators that was published after 1880 and that has received little attention from scholars other than Stilgoe
11. Which one of the following can be inferred from the passage regarding the work of Frank Norris, Eugene O Neill, and Henry Adams？
（A） Their work never achieved broad popular appeal.
（B） Their ideas were disseminated to a large audience by the popular culture of the early 1800s.
（C） Their work expressed a more positive attitude toward the railroad than did that of Henry James, Sinclair Lewis, and F. Scott Fitzgerald.
（D） Although they were primarily novelists, some of their work could be classified as journalism.
（E） Although they were influenced by Thoreau, their attitude toward the railroad was significantly different from his.
12. It can be inferred from the passage that Stilgoe would be most likely to agree with which one of the following statements regarding the study of cultural history？
（A） It is impossible to know exactly what period historians are referring to when they use the term "romantic era."
（B） The writing of intellectuals often anticipates ideas and movements that are later embraced by popular culture.
（C） Writers who were not popular in their own time tell us little about the age in which they lived.
（D） The works of popular culture can serve as a reliable indicator of public attitudes toward modern innovations like the railroad.
（E） The best source of information concerning the impact of an event as large as the Industrial Revolution is the private letters and journals of individuals.
13. The primary purpose of the passage is to
（A） evaluate one scholar s view of public attitudes toward the railroad in the United States from the early nineteenth to the early twentieth century.
（B） review the treatment of the railroad in American literature of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries
（C） survey the views of cultural historians regarding the railroad s impact on major events in United States history.
（D） explore the origins of the public support for the railroad that existed after the completion of a national rail system in the United States
（E） define what historians mean when they refer to the "romantic-era distrust" of the railroad.
Three basic adaptive responses-regulatory, acclimatory, and developmental-may occur in organisms as they react to changing environmental conditions. In all three, adjustment of biological features （morphological adjustment） or of their use （functional adjustment） may occur. Regulatory responses involve rapid changes in the organism s use of its physiological apparatus-increasing or decreasing the rates of various processes, for example. Acclimation involves morphological change-thickening of fur or red blood cell proliferation-which alters physiology itself. Such structural changes require more time than regulatory response changes. Regulatory and acclimatory responses are both reversible.
Developmental responses, however, are usually permanent and irreversible： they become fixed in the course of the individual's development in response to environmental conditions at the time the response occurs. One such response occurs in many kinds of water bugs. Most water-bug species inhabiting small lakes and ponds have two generations per year. The first hatches during the spring, reproduces during the summer, then dies. The eggs laid in the summer hatch and develop into adults in late summer. They live over the winter before breeding in early spring,. Individuals in the second （overwintering） generation have fully developed wings and leave the water in autumn to overwinter in forests, returning in spring to small bodies of water to lay eggs. Their wings are absolutely necessary for this seasonal dispersal. The summer （early） generation, in contrast, is usually dimorphic-some individuals have normal functional （macropterous） wings； others have much-reduced （micropterous） wings of no use for flight. The summer generation's dimorphism is a compromise strategy, for these individuals usually do not leave the ponds and thus generally have no use for fully developed wings. But small ponds occasionally dry up during the summer, forcing the water bugs to search for new habitats, an eventuality that macropterous individuals are well adapted to meet.
The dimorphism of micropterous and macropterous individuals in the summer generation expresses developmental flexibility； it is not genetically determined. The individual's wing form is environmentally determined by the temperature to which developing eggs are exposed prior to their being laid. Eggs maintained in a warm environment always produce bugs with normal wing, but exposure to cold produces micropterous individuals. Eggs producing the overwintering brood are all formed during the late summer's warm temperatures. Hence, all individuals in the overwintering brood have normal wings. Eggs laid by the overwintering adults in the spring, which develop into the summer generation of adults, are formed in early autumn and early spring. Those eggs formed in autumn are exposed to cold winter temperatures, and thus produce micropterous adults in the summer generation. Those formed during the spring are never exposed to cold temperatures, and thus yield individuals with normal wing. Adult water bugs of the overwintering generation brought into the laboratory during the cold months and kept warm, produce only macropterous offspring.
14. The primary purpose of the passage is to
（A） illustrate an organism's functional adaptive response to changing environmental conditions
（B） prove that organisms can exhibit three basic adaptive responses to changing environmental conditions
（C） explain the differences in form and function between micropterous and macropterous water bugs and analyze the effect of environmental changes on each
（D） discuss three different types of adaptive responses and provide an example that explains how one of those types of responses works
（E） contrast acclimatory responses with developmental responses and suggest an explanation for the evolutionary purposes of these two responses to changing environmental conditions
15. The passage supplies information to suggest that which one of the following would happen if a pond inhabited by water bugs were to dry up in June？
（A） The number of developmental responses among the water-bug population would decrease.
（B） Both micropterous and macropterous water bugs would show and acclimatory response.
（C） The generation of water bugs to be hatched during the subsequent spring would contain an unusually large number of macropterous individuals.
（D） The dimorphism of the summer generation would enable some individuals to survive.
（E） The dimorphism of the summer generation would be genetically transferred to the next spring generation.
16. It can be inferred from the passage that if the winter months of a particular year were unusually warm, the
（A） eggs formed by water bugs in the autumn would probably produce a higher than usual proportion of macropterous individuals
（B） eggs formed by water bugs in the autumn would probably produce an entire summer generation of water bugs with smaller than normal wings
（C） eggs of the overwintering generation formed in the autumn would not be affected by this temperature change
（D） overwintering generation would not leave the ponds for the forest during the winter
（E） overwintering generation of water bugs would most likely form fewer eggs in the autumn and more in the spring
17. According to the passage, the dimorphic wing structure of the summer generation of water bugs occurs because
（A） the overwintering generation forms two sets of eggs, one exposed to the colder temperatures of winter and one exposed only to the warmer temperatures of spring
（B） the eggs that produce micropterous and macropterous adults are morphologically different
（C） water bugs respond to seasonal changes by making an acclimatory functional adjustment in the wings
（D） water bugs hatching in the spring live out their life spans in ponds and never need to fly
（E） the overwintering generation, which produces eggs developing into the dimorphic generation, spends the winter in the forest and the spring in small ponds
18. It can be inferred from the passage that which one of the following is an example of a regulatory response？
（A） thickening of the plumage of some birds in the autumn
（B） increase in pulse ate during vigorous exercise
（C） gradual darkening of the skin after exposure to sunlight
（D） gradual enlargement of muscles as a result of weight lifting
（E） development of a heavy fat layer in bears before hibernation
19. According to the passage, the generation of water bugs hatching during the summer is likely to
（A） be made up of equal numbers of macropterous and micropterous individuals
（B） lay its eggs during the winter in order to expose them to cold
（C） show a marked inability to fly from one pond to another
（D） exhibit genetically determined differences in wing form from the early spring-hatched generation
（E） contain a much greater proportion of macropterous water bugs than the early spring-hatched generation
20. The author mentions laboratory experiments with adult water bugs （lines 63-66） in order to illustrate which one of the following？
（A） the function of the summer generation's dimorphism
（B） the irreversibility of most developmental adaptive responses in water bugs
（C） the effect of temperature on developing water-bug eggs
（D） the morphological difference between the summer generation and the overwintering generation of water bugs
（E） the functional adjustment of water bugs in response to seasonal temperature variation
21. Which one of the following best describes the organization of the passage？
（A） Biological phenomena are presented, examples of their occurrence are compared and contrasted, and one particular example is illustrated in detail.
（B） A description of related biological phenomena is stated, and two of those phenomena are explained in detail with illustrated examples.
（C） Three related biological phenomena are described, a hypothesis explaining their relationship is presented, and supporting evidence is produce.
（D） Three complementary biological phenomena are explained, their causes are examined, and one of them is described by contrasting its causes with the other tow.
（E） A new way of describing biological phenomena is suggested, its applications are presented, and one specific example is examined in detail.
The Constitution of the United States does not explicitly define the extent of the President's authority to involve United States troops in conflicts with other nations in the absence of a declaration of war. Instead, the question of the President's authority in this matter falls in the hazy area of concurrent power, where authority is not expressly allocated to either the President or the Congress. The Constitution gives Congress the basic power to declare war, as well as the authority to raise and support armies and a navy, enact regulations for the control of the military, and provide for the common defense. The President, on the other hand, in addition to being obligated to execute the laws of the land, including commitments negotiated by defense treaties, is named commander in chief of the armed forces and is empowered to appoint envoys and make treaties with the consent of the Senate. Although this use of armed forces short of a declared war, the spirit of the Constitution at least requires that Congress should be involved in the decision to deploy troops., and in passing the War Powers Resolution of 1973, Congress has at last reclaimed a role in such decisions.
Historically, United States Presidents have not waited for the approval of Congress before involving United States troops in conflicts in which a state of war was not declared. One scholar has identified 199 military engagements that occurred without the consent of Congress, ranging from Jefferson's conflict with the Barbary pirates to Nixon's invasion of Cambodia during the Vietnam conflict, which President Nixon argued was justified because his role as commander in chief allowed him almost unlimited discretion over the deployment of troops. However, the Vietnam conflict, never a declared war, represented a turning point in Congress's tolerance of presidential discretion in the deployment of troops in undeclared wars. Galvanized by the human and monetary cost of those hostilities and showing a new determination to fulfill its proper role, Congress enacted the War Powers Resolution of 1973, a statute designed to ensure that the collective judgment of both Congress and the President would be applied to the involvement of United States troops in foreign conflicts.
The resolution required the President, in the absence of a declaration of war, to consult with Congress “in every possible instance” before introducing forces and to report to Congress within 48 hours after the forces have actually been deployed. Most important, the resolution allows Congress to veto the involvement once it begins, and requires the President, in most cases, to end the involvement within 60 days unless Congress specifically authorizes the military operation to continue. In its final section, by declaring the resolution is not intended to alter the constitutional authority of either Congress or the President, the resolution asserts that congressional involvement decisions to use armed force is in accord with the intent and spirit of the Constitution.
22. In the passage, the author is primarily concerned with
（A） showing how the Vietnam conflict led to a new interpretation of the Constitution's provisions for use of the military
（B） arguing that the War Powers Resolution of 1973 is an attempt to reclaim a share of constitutionally concurrent power that had been usurped by the President
（C） outlining the history of the struggle between the President and Congress for control of the military
（D） providing examples of conflicts inherent in the Constitution's approach to a balance of powers
（E） explaining how the War Powers Resolution of 1973 alters the Constitution to eliminate an overlap of authority
23. With regard to the use of United States troops in a foreign conflict without a formal declaration of war by the United States, the author believes that the United States Constitution does which one of the following？
（A） assumes that the President and Congress will agree on whether troops should be used
（B） provides a clear-cut division of authority between the President and Congress in the decision to use troops
（C） assigns a greater role to the Congress than to the President in deciding whether troops should be used
（D） grants final authority to the President to decide whether to use troops
（E） intends that both the President and Congress should be involved in the decision to use troops
24. The passage suggests that each of the following contributed to Congress's enacting the War Powers Resolution of 1973 EXCEPT
（A） a change in the attitude in Congress toward exercising its role in the use of armed forces
（B） the failure of Presidents to uphold commitments specified in defense treaties
（C） Congress's desire to be consulted concerning United States military actions instigated by the President
（D） the amount of money spent on recent conflicts waged without a declaration of war
（E） the number of lives lost in Vietnam
25. It can be inferred from the passage that the War Powers Resolution of 1973 is applicable only in “the absence of a declaration of war” （lines 48-49） because
（A） Congress has enacted other laws that already set out presidential requirements for situations in which war has been declared
（B） by virtue of declaring war, Congress already implicitly participates in the decision to deploy troops
（C） the President generally receives broad public support during wars that have been formally declared by Congress
（D） Congress felt that the President should be allowed unlimited discretion incases in which war has been declared
（E） the United States Constitution already explicitly defines the reporting and consulting requirements of the President in cases in which war has been declared
26. In can be inferred from the passage that the author believes that the War Powers Resolution of 1973
（A） is not in accord with the explicit roles of the President and Congress as defined in the Constitution
（B） interferes with the role of the President as commander in chief of the armed forces
（C） signals Congress's commitment to fulfill a role intended for it by the Constitution
（D） fails explicitly to address the use of armed forces in the absence of a declaration of war
（E） confirms the role historically assumed by Presidents
27. It can be inferred from the passage that the author would be most likely to agree with which one of the following statements regarding the invasion of Cambodia？
（A） Because it was undertaken without the consent of Congress, it violated the intent and spirit of the Constitution.
（B） Because it galvanized support for the War Powers Resolution, it contributed indirectly to the expansion of presidential authority
（C） Because it was necessitated by a defense treaty, it required the consent of Congress.
（D） It served as a precedent for a new interpretation of the constitutional limits on the President's authority to deploy troops.
（E） it differed from the actions of past Presidents in deploying United States troops in conflicts without a declaration of war by Congress.
28. According to the provision of the War Powers Resolution of 1973 as described in the passage, if the President perceives that an international conflict warrants the immediate involvement of United States armed forces, the President is compelled in every instance to
（A） request that Congress consider a formal declaration of war
（B） consult with the leaders of both house of Congress before deploying armed forces
（C） desist from deploying any troops unless expressly approved by Congress
（D） report to Congress within 48 hours of the deployment of armed forces
（E） withdraw any armed forces deployed in such a conflict within 60 days unless war is declared