Time 35 minutes 24 Questions
Directions: The questions in this section are based on the reasoning contained in brief statements or passages.
1. Some people believe that witnessing violence in movies will discharge aggressive energy. Does watching someone else eat fill one’s own stomach?
In which one of the following does the reasoning most closely parallel that employed in the passage?
(A) Some people think appropriating supplies at work for their own personal use is morally wrong. Isn’t shoplifting morally wrong?
(B) Some people think nationalism is defensible. Hasn’t nationalism been the excuse for committing abominable crimes?
(C) Some people think that boxing is fixed just because wrestling usually is. Are the two sports managed by the same sort of people?
(D) Some people think that economists can control inflation. Can meteorologists make the sun shine?(D)
(E) Some people think workaholics are compensating for a lack of interpersonal skills. However, aren’t most doctors workaholics?
2. Ann: All the campers at Camp Winnehatchee go to Tri-Cities High School
Bill: That’s not true. Some Tri-Cities students are campers at Camp Lakemont.
Bill’s answer can be best explained on the assumption that he has interpreted Ann’s remark to mean that
(A) most of the campers at Camp Lakemont come from high schools other than Tri-Cities
(B) most Tri-Cities High School students are campers at Camp Winnehatchee
(C) some Tri-Cities High School students have withdrawn from Camp Lakemont
(D) all Tri-Cities High School students have withdrawn from Camp Lakemont(E)
(E) only campers at Camp Winnehatchee are students at Tri-Cities High School
3. More than a year ago, the city announced that police would crack down on illegally parked cars and that resources would be diverted from writing speeding tickets to ticketing illegally parked cars. But no crackdown has taken place. The police chief claims that resources have had to be diverted from writing speeding tickets to combating the city’s staggering drug problem. Yet the police are still writing as many speeding tickets as ever. Therefore, the excuse about resources being tied up in fighting drug-related crime simply is not true.
The conclusion in the passage depends on the assumption that
(A) every member of the police force is qualified to work on combating the city’s drug problem
(B) drug-related crime is not as serious a problem for the city as the police chief claims it is
(C) writing speeding tickets should be as important a priority for the city as combating drug-related crime
(D) the police could be cracking down on illegally parked cars and combating the drug problem without having to reduce writing speeding tickets(E)
(E) the police cannot continue writing as many speeding tickets as ever while diverting resources to combating drug-related crime
4. Dried grass clippings mixed into garden soil gradually decompose, providing nutrients for beneficial soil bacteria. This results in better-than-average plant growth. Yet mixing fresh grass clippings into garden soil usually causes poorer-than-average plant growth.
Which one of the following, if true, most helps to explain the difference in plant growth described above?
(A) The number of beneficial soil bacteria increases whenever any kind of plant material is mixed into garden soil.
(B) Nutrients released by dried grass clippings are immediately available to beneficial soil bacteria.
(C) Some dried grass clippings retain nutrients originally derived from commercial lawn fertilizers, and thus provide additional enrichment to the soil.
(D) Fresh grass clippings mixed into soil decompose rapidly, generating high levels of heat that kill beneficial soil bacteria.(D)
(E) When a mix of fresh and dried grass clippings is mixed into garden soil, plant growth often decreases.
5. A gas tax of one cent per gallon would raise one billion dollars per year at current consumption rates. Since a tax of fifty cents per gallon would therefore raise fifty billion dollars per year, it seems a perfect way to deal with the federal budget deficit. This tax would have the additional advantage that the resulting drop in the demand for gasoline would be ecologically sound and would keep our country from being too dependent on foreign oil producers.
Which one of the following most clearly identifies an error in the author’s reasoning?
(A) The author cites irrelevant data.
(B) The author relies on incorrect current consumption figures.
(C) The author makes incompatible assumptions.
(D) The author mistakes an effect for a cause.(C)
(E) The author appeals to conscience rather than reason.
6. As symbols of the freedom of the wilderness, bald eagles have the unique capacity to inspire people and foster in them a sympathetic attitude toward the needs of other threatened species. Clearly, without that sympathy and the political will it engenders, the needs of more obscure species will go unmet. The conservation needs of many obscure species can only be met by beginning with the conservation of this symbolic species, the bald eagle.
Which one of the following is the main point of the passage as a whole?
(A) Because bald eagles symbolize freedom, conservation efforts should be concentrated on them rather than on other, more obscure species.
(B) The conservation of bald eagles is the first necessary step in conserving other endangered species.
(C) Without increased public sympathy for conservation, the needs of many symbolic species will go unmet.
(D) People’s love of the wilderness can be used to engender political support for conservation efforts.(B)
(E) Other threatened species do not inspire people or foster sympathy as much as do bald eagles.
13. If retail stores experience a decrease in revenues during this holiday season, then either attitudes toward extravagant gift-giving have changed or prices have risen beyond the level most people can afford. If attitudes have changed, then we all have something to celebrate this season. If prices have risen beyond the level most people can afford, then it must be that salaries have not kept pace with rising prices during the past year.
Assume the premises above to be true. If salaries have kept pace with rising prices during the past year, which one of the following must be true?
(A) Attitudes toward extravagant gift-giving have changed.
(B) Retail stores will not experience a decrease in retail sales during this holiday season.
(C) Prices in retail stores have not risen beyond the level that most people can afford during this holiday season.
(D) Attitudes toward extravagant gift-giving have not changed, and stores will not experience a decrease in revenues during this holiday season.(C)
(E) Either attitudes toward extravagant gift-giving have changed or prices have risen beyond the level that most people can afford during this holiday season.
14. The “suicide wave” that followed the United States stock market crash of October 1929 is more legend than fact. Careful examination of the monthly figures on the causes of death in 1929 shows that the number of suicides in October and in November was comparatively low. In only three other months were the monthly figures lower. During the summer months, when the stock market was flourishing, the number of suicides was substantially higher.
Which one of the following, if true, would best challenge the conclusion of the passage?
(A) The suicide rate is influenced by many psychological, interpersonal, and societal factors during any given historical period.
(B) October and November have almost always had relatively high suicide rates, even during the 1920s and 1930s.
(C) The suicide rate in October and November of 1929 was considerably higher than the average for those months during several preceding and following years.
(D) During the years surrounding the stock market crash, suicide rates were typically lower at the beginning of any calendar year than toward the end of that year.(C)
(E) Because of seasonal differences, the number of suicides in October and November of 1929 would not be expected to be the same as those for other months.
15. A well-known sports figure found that combining publicity tours with playing tours led to problems, so she stopped combining the two. She no longer allows bookstore appearances and playing in competition to occur in the same city within the same trip. This week she is traveling to London to play in a major competition, so during her stay in London she will not be making any publicity appearances at any bookstore in London.
Which one of the following most closely parallels the reasoning used in the passage?
(A) Wherever there is an Acme Bugkiller, many wasps are killed. The Z family garden has an Acme Bugkiller, so any wasps remaining in the garden will soon be killed.
(B) The only times that the hospital’s emergency room staff attends to relatively less serious emergencies are times when there is no critical emergency to attend to. On Monday night the emergency room staff attended to a series of fairly minor emergencies, so there must not have been any critical emergencies to take care of at the time.
(C) Tomato plants require hot summers to thrive. Farms in the cool summers of country Y probably do not have thriving tomato plants.
(D) Higher grades lead to better job opportunities, and studying leads to higher grades. Therefore, studying will lead to better job opportunities.(B)
(E) Butter knives are not sharp. Q was not murdered with a sharp blade, so suspect X’s butter knife may have been the murder weapon.
The advanced technology of ski boots and bindings has brought a dramatic drop in the incidence of injuries that occur on the slopes of ski resorts: from 9 injuries per 1,000 skiers in 1950 to 3 in 1980. As a result, the remainder of ski-related injuries, which includes all injuries occurring on the premises of a ski resort but not on the slopes, rose from 10 percent of all ski-related injuries in 1950 to 25 percent in 1980. The incidence of these injuries, including accidents such as falling down steps, increases with the amount of alcohol consumed per skier.
16. Which one of the following can be properly inferred from the passage?
(A) As the number of ski injuries that occur on the slopes decreases, the number of injuries that occur on the premises of ski resorts increases.
(B) The amount of alcohol consumed per skier increased between 1950 and 1980.
(C) The technology of ski boots and bindings affects the incidence of each type of ski-related injury.
(D) If the technology of ski boots and bindings continues to advance, the incidence of ski-related injuries will continue to decline.(E)
(E) Injuries that occurred on the slopes of ski resorts made up a smaller percentage of ski-related injuries in 1980 than in 1950.
17. Which one of the following conflicts with information in the passage?
(A) The number of ski injuries that occurred on the slopes was greater in 1980 than in 1950.
(B) A skier was less likely to be injured on the slopes in 1950 than in 1980.
(C) The reporting of ski injuries became more accurate between 1950 and 1980.
(D) The total number of skiers dropped between 1950 and 1980.(B)
(E) Some ski-related injuries occurred in 1980 to people who were not skiing.
18. Learning how to build a nest plays an important part in the breeding success of birds. For example, Dr. Snow has recorded the success of a number of blackbirds in several successive years. He finds that birds nesting for the first time are less successful in breeding than are older birds, and also less successful than they themselves are a year later. This cannot be a mere matter of size and strength, since blackbirds, like the great majority of birds, are fully grown when they leave the nest. It is difficult to avoid the conclusion that they benefit by their nesting experience.
Which one of the following, if true, would most weaken the argument?
(A) Blackbirds build better nests than other birds.
(B) The capacity of blackbirds to lay viable eggs increases with each successive trial during the first few years of reproduction.
(C) The breeding success of birds nesting for the second time is greater than that of birds nesting for the first time.
(D) Smaller and weaker blackbirds breed just as successfully as bigger and stronger blackbirds.(B)
(E) Up to 25 percent of all birds are killed by predators before they start to nest.
19. How do the airlines expect to prevent commercial plane crashes? Studies have shown that pilot error contributes to two-thirds of all such crashes. To address this problem, the airlines have upgraded their training programs by increasing the hours of classroom instruction and emphasizing communication skills in the cockpit. But it is unrealistic to expect such measures to compensate for pilots’ lack of actual flying time. Therefore, the airlines should rethink their training approach to reducing commercial crashes.
Which one of the following is an assumption upon which the argument depends?
(A) Training programs can eliminate pilot errors.
(B) Commercial pilots routinely undergo additional training throughout their careers.
(C) The number of airline crashes will decrease if pilot training programs focus on increasing actual flying time.
(D) Lack of actual flying time is an important contributor to pilot error in commercial plane crashes.(D)
(E) Communication skills are not important to pilot training programs.
20. All savings accounts are interest-bearing accounts. The interest from some interest-bearing accounts is tax-free, so there must be some savings accounts that have tax-free interest.
Which one of the following arguments is flawed in a way most similar to the way in which the passage is flawed?
(A) All artists are intellectuals. Some great photographers are artists. Therefore, some great photographers must be intellectuals.
(B) All great photographers are artists. All artists are intellectuals. Therefore, some great photographers must be intellectuals.
(C) All great photographers are artists. Some artists are intellectuals. Therefore, some great photographers are intellectuals.
(D) All great photographers are artists. Some great photographers are intellectuals. Therefore, some artists must be intellectuals.(C)
(E) All great photographers are artists. No artists are intellectuals. Therefore, some great photographers must not be intellectuals.
21. One method of dating the emergence of species is to compare the genetic material of related species. Scientists theorize that the more genetically similar two species are to each other, the more recently they diverged from a common ancestor. After comparing genetic material from giant pandas, red pandas, raccoons, coatis, and all seven bear species, scientists concluded that bears and raccoons diverged 30 to 50 million years ago. They further concluded that red pandas separated from the ancestor of today’s raccoons and coatis a few million years later, some 10 million years before giant pandas diverged from the other bears.
Which one of the following can be properly inferred from the passage?
(A) Giant pandas and red pandas are more closely related than scientists originally thought they were.
(B) Scientists now count the giant panda as the eighth species of bear.
(C) It is possible to determine, within a margin of just a few years, the timing of divergence of various species.
(D) Scientists have found that giant pandas are more similar genetically to bears than to raccoons.(D)
(E) There is substantial consensus among scientists that giant pandas and red pandas are equally related to raccoons.
Despite improvements in treatment for asthma, the death rate form this disease has doubled during the past decade from its previous rate. Two possible explanations for this increase have been offered. First, the recording of deaths due to asthma has become more widespread and accurate in the past decade than it had been previously. Second, there has been an increase in urban pollution. However, since the rate of deaths due to asthma has increased dramatically even in cities with long-standing, comprehensive medical records and with little or no urban pollution, one must instead conclude that the cause of increased deaths is the use of bronchial inhalers by asthma sufferers to relieve their symptoms.
22. Each of the following, if true, provides support to the argument EXCEPT:
(A) Urban populations have doubled in the past decade.
(B) Records of asthma deaths are as accurate for the past twenty years as for the past ten years.
(C) Evidence suggests that bronchial inhalers make the lungs more sensitive to irritation by airborne pollen.
(D) By temporarily relieving the symptoms of asthma, inhalers encourage sufferers to avoid more beneficial measures.(A)
(E) Ten years ago bronchial inhalers were not available as an asthma treatment.
23. Which one of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?
(A) Urban pollution has not doubled in the past decade.
(B) Doctors and patients generally ignore the role of allergies in asthma.
(C) Bronchial inhalers are unsafe, even when used according to the recommended instructions.
(D) The use of bronchial inhalers aggravates other diseases that frequently occur among asthma sufferers and that often lead to fatal outcomes even when the asthma itself does not.(E)
(E) Increased urban pollution, improved recording of asthma deaths, and the use of bronchial inhalers are the only possible explanations of the increased death rate due to asthma.
24. There is little point in looking to artists for insights into political issues. Most of them hold political views that are less insightful than those of any reasonably well-educated person who is not an artist. Indeed, when taken as a whole, the statements made by artists, including those considered to be great, indicate that artistic talent and political insight are rarely found together.
Which one of the following can be inferred from the passage?
(A) There are no artists who have insights into political issues.
(B) A thorough education in art makes a person reasonably well educated.
(C) Every reasonably well-educated person who s not an artist has more insight into political issues than any artist.
(D) Politicians rarely have any artistic talent.(E)
(E) Some artists are no less politically insightful than some reasonably well-educated persons who are not artists.
7. There is no reason why the work of scientists has to be officially confirmed before being published. There is a system in place for the confirmation or disconfirmation of scientific finding, namely, the replication of results by other scientists. Poor scientific work on the part of any one scientist, which can include anything from careless reporting practices to fraud, is not harmful. It will be exposed and rendered harmless when other scientists conduct the experiments and obtain disconfirmatory results.
Which one of the following, if true, would weaken the argument?
(A) Scientific experiments can go unchallenged for many years before they are replicated.
(B) Most scientists work in universities, where their work is submitted to peer review before publication.
(C) Most scientists are under pressure to make their work accessible to the scrutiny of replication.
(D) In scientific experiments, careless reporting is more common than fraud.(A)
(E) Most scientists work as part of a team rather than alone.
8. Alice: Quotas on automobile imports to the United States should be eliminated. Then domestic producers would have to compete directly with Japanese manufacturers and would be forced to produce higher-quality cars. Such competition would be good for consumers.
David: You fail to realize, Alice, that quotas on automobile imports are pervasive worldwide. Since German, Britain, and France have quotas, so should the United States.
Which one of the following most accurately characterizes David’s response to Alice’s statement?
(A) David falsely accuses Alice of contradicting herself.
(B) David unfairly directs his argument against Alice personally.
(C) David uncovers a hidden assumption underlying Alice’s position.
(D) David takes a position that is similar to the one Alice has taken.(E)
(E) David fails to address the reasons Alice cites in favor of her conclusion.
9. Governments have only one response to public criticism of socially necessary services: regulation of the activity of providing those services. But governments inevitably make the activity more expensive by regulating it, and that is particularly troublesome in these times of strained financial resources. However, since public criticism of child-care services has undermined all confidence in such services, and since such services are socially necessary, the government is certain to respond.
Which one of the following statements can be inferred from the passage?
(A) The quality of child care will improve.
(B) The cost of providing child-care services will increase.
(C) The government will use funding to foster advances in child care.
(D) If public criticism of policy is strongly voiced, the government is certain to respond.(B)
(E) If child-care services are not regulated, the cost of providing child care will not increase.
10. Advertisers are often criticized for their unscrupulous manipulation of people’s tastes and wants. There is evidence, however, that some advertisers are motivated by moral as well as financial considerations. A particular publication decided to change its image from being a family newspaper to concentrating on sex and violence, thus appealing to a different readership. Some advertisers withdrew their advertisements from the publication, and this must have been because they morally disapproved of publishing salacious material.
Which one of the following, if true, would most strengthen the argument?
(A) The advertisers switched their advertisements to other family newspapers.
(B) Some advertisers switched from family newspapers to advertise in the changed publication.
(C) The advertisers expected their product sales to increase if they stayed with the changed publication, but to decrease if they withdrew.
(D) People who generally read family newspapers are not likely to buy newspapers that concentrate on sex and violence.(C)
(E) It was expected that the changed publication would appeal principally to those in a different income group.
11. “If the forest continues to disappear at its present pace, the koala will approach extinction,” said the biologist.
“So all that is needed to save the koala is to stop deforestation,” said the politician.
Which one of the following statements is consistent with the biologist’s claim but not with the politician’s claim?
(A) Deforestation continues and the koala becomes extinct.
(B) Deforestation is stopped and the koala becomes extinct.
(C) Reforestation begins and the koala survives.
(D) Deforestation is slowed and the koala survives.(B)
(E) Deforestation is slowed and the koala approaches extinction.
12. People have long been fascinated by the paranormal. Over the years, numerous researchers have investigated telepathy only to find that conclusive evidence for its existence has persistently evaded them. Despite this, there are still those who believe that there must be “something in it” since some research seems to support the view that telepathy exist. However, it can often be shown that other explanations that do comply with known laws can be given. Therefore, it is premature to conclude that telepathy is an alternative means of communication.
In the passage, the author
(A) supports the conclusion by pointing to the inadequacy of evidence for the opposite view
(B) supports the conclusion by describing particular experiments
(C) supports the conclusion by overgeneralizing from a specific piece of evidence
(D) draws a conclusion that is not supported by the premises(A)
(E) rephrases the conclusion without offering any support for it