Time 35 minutes 26 Questions
Directions: The questions in this section are based on the reasoning contained in brief statements or passages...
1. The government should enact a bill that would prohibit the sale and consumption of alcohol on commuter trains. Recently, the state, exercising its legitimate authority, passed a law to protect the health of commuters by prohibiting smoking on the commuter line. When intoxicated riders get off the train, get in their cars, and drive, the public is exposed to at least as much danger as are nonsmoking rail passengers who are forced to inhale cigarette smoke.
In arguing that alcohol consumption on commuter trains should be banned, the author relies on
(A) the fact that drinking alcohol is dangerous to one’s health
(B) the principle that people need to be protected from their own actions
(C) the use of emotionally charged descriptions of smoking and drinking alcohol
(D) the reader’s sympathy for the problems of commuters（E）
(E) a comparison between the effects of smoking and the effects of drinking alcohol
2. Creating false marble is an art at which only those with a light hand can excel. Picasso, however, was a great artist, so while he did not have a light hand he could have excelled at creating false marble.
Which one of the following contains a logical error that most closely resembles the logical error contained in the passage?
(A) The police have determined that the murderer left his fingerprints on the knife. Ira’s fingerprints do not match those on the knife, so we can eliminate him as a suspect.
(B) It is true that it is necessary to work hard in order to succeed. However, smith was governor of the state, so it was possible for him to succeed without working hard.
(C) Whenever I eat nuts of any kind I break out in hives. After eating the pie I did not break out, so I know it could not have been real pecan pie.
(D) If the inventory can be sold within the next few months the business can be saved. However, since a sale cannot be concluded quickly, the business will go under.（B）
(E) Only the brave deserve the spoils. Major Wilson has distinguished himself several times for bravery, so surely he deserves the spoils.
3. Cass: War and peace are mutually exclusive. Therefore, a nation cannot be preparing for both war and peace simultaneously.
Stanislaus: But aren’t the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. doing precisely that? They are spending vast amounts of money on war research and armaments while at the same time they are negotiating trade agreements and nuclear arms treaties that are designed to secure peace. Although they are maintaining a shaky peaceful coexistence, they are preparing for both war and peace simultaneously.
In order to refute Cass’s conclusion, Stanislaus
(A) demonstrates that a nation can be at war and at peace at the same time
(B) points out that there are several different meanings to the words “war” and “peace”
(C) uses a different meaning for the term “simultaneously” than Cass does
(D) shows that preparing for war and preparing for peace are not mutually exclusive（D）
(E) changes an argument based on a definition into one based on an ethical consideration
4. According to advertisements, the higher a suntan lotion’s sun protection factor, or SPF, the more protection from sunburn. In order for a suntan lotion to work, however, one has to remember to put it on before going in the sun, put on an adequate amount to cover the skin, and reapply it as needed. Therefore, it really does not matter what SPF a suntan lotion has.
Which one of the following best identifies the error in reasoning made in the passage?
(A) It is unreasonable to assume that the only purpose of a suntan lotion is to provide protection from sunburn.
(B) Because some people get sunburned more easily than others, the fact that there are different SPFs cannot be ignored.
(C) It cannot be concluded that the SPF is not important just because there are requirements for the application of the suntan lotion.
(D) It is unreasonable to assume that all suntan lotions require the same application.（C）
(E) There is no reason to assume that manufacturers are unaware that people sometimes forget to apply suntan lotion before going in the sun.
Patient: Doctor, I read an article that claimed that the first few hours after birth are very important to establishing a mother-infant bond, which is the first step in building a healthy relationship. Can you assure me that my relationship with my baby has not been permanently harmed by our separation for several days after his birth?
Physician: Your relationship with your child has not been harmed by the separation. Mother-infant bonding is not like an “instant glue” that cements your relationship forever. Having your infant with you during the period immediately after birth does give your relationship a head start, but many factors are involved in building a strong and lasting relationship between a mother and her child.
5. If everything the doctor says is correct, which one of the following must be true?
(A) The best relationships between mothers and their children are caused by immediate mother-infant bonding.
(B) There is a high degree of correlation between the best relationships between mothers and their children and those that began with immediate mother-infant bonding.
(C) A strong and lasting relationship is necessary for mother-infant bonding.
(D) Where immediate mother-infant bonding takes place, a strong and lasting relationship between a mother and her child will be assured.（E）
(E) Immediate mother-infant bonding is not necessary for a strong and lasting relationship between a mother and her child.
6. The doctor does which one of the following in her reply to her patient?
(A) She rejects an analogy in an attempt to reduce the patient’s concern.
(B) She cites evidence to show that the patient’s worry is unfounded.
(C) She misinterprets the patient’s explanation of her concern.
(D) She establishes that the article that the patient read was in error.（A）
(E) She names other factors that are more important in creating a mother-infant bond.
7. A recent survey showed that many workers in a certain company are dissatisfied with their jobs. The survey also showed that most of the dissatisfied workers believe that they have little control over their job assignments. Therefore, to increase workers job satisfaction the company’s management need only concentrate on changing workers’ beliefs regarding the degree of control they have over their job assignments.
Which one of the following, if also shown by the survey, would most seriously call into question the conclusion made by the author of the passage?
(A) The dissatisfied workers feel that their wages are too low and working conditions are unsatisfactory.
(B) The number of workers in the company who are satisfied with their jobs is greater than the number who are dissatisfied.
(C) The workers in the company are more dissatisfied than workers in other companies.
(D) Most people in company management believe that the workers already have too much control over their work.（A）
(E) The workers in the company who are satisfied with their jobs believe that they have a lot of control over their job assignments.
8. Dr. Sheila Porter plans to run an experiment using nursing students. Each student will be shown either a pleasant nature film or a disturbing horror film. Each student will be observed by someone who—looking only at the student’s facial expressions—must ascertain which film is being shown. Students shown the horror movie are told to hide their feelings in order to convince the observer that they are watching a pleasant film. Dr. Porter hypothesizes that all the students in the experiment who are convincing will be among the best at working with patients. The hypothesis will be tested by comparing the convincing students and unconvincing students in terms of their performance with patents.
Which one of the following incidents best illustrates Dr. Porter’s hypothesis?
(A) Niles, the most convincing student in the experiment, later went on to become a physician.
(B) After graduating, Yoshiro, a nursing student who was convincing in the experiment, helped care for Bram, a patient at a hospital. Bram recovered from his operation.
(C) After graduating, Kim, a nursing student in the experiment who watched the nature film, was removed from the staff of a hospital for unacceptable performance in patient care.
(D) Daria, a nursing student who was convincing in the experiment, later received “A’s” in those classes in which working with patients in a teaching hospital was the sole basis of her grades.（D）
(E) Marite, a nursing student who was not convincing in the experiment, later quit nursing school.
9. Those who think with a hierarchical mentality strive for situations in which their side is dominant and the other side is submissive. In contrast, communal thinkers strive for parity among all sides. Therefore, achieving parity of nuclear weaponry between the East and the West is not enough for Western military generals.
Which one of the following assumptions would provide the most support for the conclusion above?
(A) Western military generals do not have the same mentality as do Eastern military generals.
(B) Parity in nuclear weaponry requires that military generals from both the East and the West think in communal terms.
(C) Western military generals want parity with respect to strength in nuclear weaponry between the East and the West.
(D) Western military generals’ thinking about relative strength in nuclear weaponry is hierarchical.（D）
(E) The thinking of military generals with respect to relative strength in nuclear weaponry is either hierarchical or communal.
10. It has always been difficult to understand the basis of politics in the People’s Republic of China. Because the system is effectively closed, it is impossible to know with any degree of confidence who is allied with whom and for what reasons. Yet Chinese politics does exhibit many of the external characteristics of factional political systems, as found in more open societies. It is legitimate to conclude, therefore, that China has a factional political system.
Which one of the following, if true, would confirm the author’s conclusion that China has a factional political system?
(A) All open political systems are factional political systems.
(B) All factional political systems are closed political systems.
(C) All closed political systems are factional political systems.
(D) China’s political system is more open than many existing factional political systems.（C）
(E) China’s political system is more closed than all existing factional political systems.
11. Since no one returns from death, we can never be certain about what passes through the mind of the dying person. For the unconscious, the confused, and the heavily sedated, these final moments are probably meaningless. However, for the mentally alert, it is quite possible that death presents itself as an unbelievably glorious experience, a flight into an entirely new universe of sensation. Why should we think so? Some people who have been reprieved from “certain” death at the last moment have experienced what goes through the consciousness of those who are not so fortunate. For example, parachutists who have survived falls report experiences that resemble psychedelic “trips.”
The primary point of the argument in the passage is
(A) no one returns from death
(B) dying can be a glorious experience
(C) we can never know what passes through the mind of a dying person
(D) some people are reprieved from death at the last moment（B）
(E) some people “die”, yet live to report their, experiences
12. Aristotle wrote that a tyrant would be well advised to put on the appearance of uncommon devotion to religion. Subjects are more tolerant of unjust treatment from a ruler whom they consider god-rearing and pious. Moreover as most subjects believe that even the gods are on the side of the ruler, the subjects are less apt to move against him.
Which one of the following is an assumption on which Aristotle’s argument depends?
(A) The subjects of tyrannical rulers typically believe that there is a power other than the mortal.
(B) A tyrant cannot rule unless he has divine power on his side.
(C) The subjects of tyrannical rulers can rarely be fooled by appearances.
(D) Tyrants who are devoted to religion will not treat their subjects unjustly.（A）
(E) For a tyrant, the appearance of uncommon devotion to religion is a more effective means of ruling than unjust treatment.
13. That gadget I bought for the kitchen last week has already broken. It’s just another example of the shoddy products that we are seeing more and more of these days. The thing was probably manufactured in East Golo.
Which one of the following is the best expression of an unstated premise that underlies the author’s reasoning in the passage?
(A) If a manufacturer uses shoddy materials to make a gadget, the gadget is likely to break quickly.
(B) If a gadget breaks quickly, it was probably manufactured in East Golo.
(C) If a kitchen gadget was manufactured in East Golo, it should not be sold in this country.
(D) If everything that is manufactured in East Golo breaks quickly, then kitchen gadgets manufactured in East Golo are likely to break quickly.（B）
(E) Nothing that is manufactured in East Golo can be expected to last more than a week.
14. All those who keep a journal will be heard by the next generation. Some of these journal writers are true artists, others humorous observers of the commonplace, and still others insufferable egotists who feel compelled to record their every thought.
If the statements above are true, which one of the following must be true?
(A) Not all of those who are humorous observers of the commonplace will be heard by the next generation.
(B) Everyone who will be heard by the next generation keeps a journal.
(C) The next generation will hear both insufferable egotists and true artists.
(D) Some of those who keep journals are not true artists, humorous observers of the commonplace, or insufferable egotists.（C）
(E) The next generation will bear some of those who are true artists but not all of them.
15. Sven: Trade unions are traditionally regarded by governments and economists as restraints of trade, working against the complete freedom of the economy, but I believe that unions are indispensable since they are often the worker’s only protection against exploitation.
Ravi: I don’t agree. The exploitation of the workers and their work is a normal part of ordinary trade just like the exploitation of natural or other material resources.
Sven and Ravi will not be able to resolve their disagreement logically unless they
(A) define a key term
(B) rely on the opinions of established authorities
(C) question an unproved premise
(D) present supporting data（A）
(E) distinguish fact from opinion
16. History textbooks frequently need to be revised. The reasons for this are clear: new discoveries of documents and remains, the discovery of mistaken inferences in prior histories, the discovery of previously unnoticed relationships among data, and the application of hitherto undiscovered principles of natural science all may indicate inadequacies in current history texts. Any of these considerations may require that the past be reinterpreted in a manner that is new and more illuminating.
Which one of the following can be inferred from the argument in the passage?
(A) The interpretation of historical events is affected by natural science.
(B) The past is constantly renewed because of illuminating reinterpretations.
(C) History books are outdated as soon as they are written.
(D) Natural scientists also function as historians.（A）
(E) Historians’ mistaken inferences are caused by unnoticed relationships among data.
If the artificial is not better than the natural, to what end are all the arts of life? To dig, to plow, to build, to wear clothes—all are direct violations of the injunction to follow nature.
17. Which one of the following is an assumption made by the author of the passage?
(A) The arts of life have no useful end.
(B) The artificial is not better than the natural.
(C) Digging, plowing, building, and wearing clothes are better than nature.
(D) The injunction to follow nature should not be violated.（C）
(E) The arts of life are indirect means of following nature.
18. If the author’s argument were challenged on the grounds that the construction of buildings has adverse effects on the natural environment, which of the following replies might the author use to respond to the challenge logically?
(A) There are human activities, such as making music, that are environmentally harmless.
(B) Harming the environment is not an end, or purpose, of the arts of life.
(C) The construction could involve the use of natural, not artificial, materials.
(D) Constructing buildings is not an “art of life.”（E）
(E) Even if the natural environment is disturbed by the construction of buildings, it is improved for human use.
19. There are at least three people in the room. At most two people in the room recognize each other. At least one person in the room recognizes everybody else in the room.
Which one of the following is NOT consistent with the above?
(A) Four people are in the room.
(B) No two people in the room recognize each other.
(C) At most one person in the room recognizes everybody else in the room.
(D) Anyone in the room who recognizes any other person in the room is also recognized by that person.（D）
(E) Two people in the room recognize every one else in the room.
20. Abolish taxes, and real taxpayers would find that their disposable incomes have increased. Abolish taxes, and public employees would find that their incomes have disappeared.
Which one of the following is a logical conclusion that depends on information in both of the statements above?
(A) Public offices should be abolished so that disposable incomes will rise.
(B) The only real taxpayers are those who would have more to spend if they did not pay taxes.
(C) Public employees are not real taxpayers.
(D) Public employees’ incomes should not be taxed since they come from taxes.（C）
(E) If there were no taxes, then public employees could not be paid.
21. A low-pressure weather system is approaching Plainville; rainfall results from about 70 percent of such systems in the Plainville area. Moreover, the current season, spring, is the time of year in which thundershowers, which sometimes result from low-pressure systems, are most likely to occur in Plainville.
Knowing which one of the following, in addition to the information above, would be most useful for determining the probability that Plainville will have a thundershower soon?
(A) the percentage of thundershowers in Plainville that occur in the spring
(B) the percentage of spring rainfalls in Plainville that are thundershowers
(C) the percentage of thundershowers in Plainville that result from low-pressure systems
(D) whether low-pressure systems in other areas are associated with rainfall（B）
(E) whether Plainville has more or fewer thundershowers each spring than do nearby towns
22. It is illogical to infer a second and different effect from a cause which is known only by one particular effect. This is incorrect because the inferred effect must necessarily be produced by some different characteristic of the cause than is the observed effect, which already serves entirely to describe the cause.
Which one of the following arguments makes the same logical error as the one described by the author in the passage?
(A) An anonymous donor gave a thousand dollars to our historical society. I would guess that that individual also volunteers at the children’s hospital.
(B) The radioactive material caused a genetic mutation, which, in turn, caused the birth defect. Therefore, the radioactive material caused the birth defect.
(C) The tiny, unseen atom is the source of immense power. It must be its highly complex structure that produces this power.
(D) The city orchestra received more funds from the local government this year than ever before. Clearly this administration is more civic-minded than previous ones.（A）
(E) If I heat water, which is a liquid, it evaporates. If I heat hundreds of other liquids like water, they evaporate. Therefore, if I heat any liquid like water, it will evaporate.
Just as a bicycle chain may be too tight, so may one’s carefulness and conscientiousness be so tense as to hinder the running of one’s mind.
23. Which one of the following most closely parallels the reasoning used in the argument above?
(A) Just as a clock may be wound too tightly, so may one’s time be spent fruitlessly in the pursuit of perfection.
(B) Just as a carousel may spin too quickly, so may one’s rapid concentration on several problems prevent a resolution of difficulties.
(C) Just as a machine may be oiled too much, so may one’s heavy drinking of alcoholic beverages lead to complete dissipation.
(D) Just as a raging river may be frozen into stillness during the winter, so may one’s career falter at certain times of the year.（B）
(E) Just as a boxer may become too tense before a big fight, so may one’s personal concerns stand in the way of professional success.
24. Which one of the following, if true, would most seriously weaken the argument?
(A) Bicycle chains are used to turn wheels, but the human mind is used to “turn” ideas.
(B) People and bicycles are similar only in that both may not function well under stress.
(C) Bicycles help people with transportation, but careful, conscientious thought helps to solve many different problems.
(D) Extreme tension helps a bicycle chain to function efficiently.（D）
(E) People engage in poor reasoning whether they are careful and conscientious or not.
25. All of the best comedians have had unhappy childhoods. Yet, many people who have had happy childhoods are good comedians, and some good comedians who have had miserably unhappy childhoods are happy adults.
If the statements in the passage are true, which one of the following CANNOT be true?
(A) The proportion of good comedians who had unhappy childhoods is greater than the proportion of the best comedians who did.
(B) Some good comedians have had unhappy childhoods and are unhappy adults.
(C) Most of the best comedians are happy adults.
(D) More good comedians have had unhappy childhoods than have had happy childhoods.（A）
(E) The proportion of comedians who are happy adults is higher than the proportion who are unhappy adults.
26. The usefulness of lie detectors cannot be overestimated. Although there is no employee screening procedure that is 100 percent accurate, the lie detector is a valuable tool for employers and employees alike. The lie detector’s usefulness is amply demonstrated in a recent survey conducted by a prestigious university. In the survey, those employees of a large company who were applying for a newly created position within the company were asked if they had ever worked on Project X. More than one-third of the applicants studied lied and said they had worked on the project—a project that never existed.
Which one of the following best identifies a flaw in the author’s argument about the usefulness of lie detectors?
(A) The argument depends on the assumption that whatever is good for the employer is good for the employee.
(B) Since lie detectors are known to be less than 100 percent accurate, the test will tend to help only those with something to hide.
(C) By referring to a prestigious university, the author is appealing to authority rather than to evidence.
(D) The study shows only that certain individual will lie, not that the lie detector can detect them.（D）
(E) The author fails to address the issue that the use of lie detectors may fail to prevent embezzlement.