The expansion of the universities since the beginning of World War II and the great increase in number of college graduates and ph. Ds have produced a corps of technicians, aides, speechwriters, symbol manufactures, investigators, and policy proposers who are now employed by practical men in all institutions. These people, called intellectuals in the sense that they deal with symbols and ideas, have become professionalized in exactly the same sense as the engineer. Unlike the engineer, however, these professional intellectuals are free from much of the routine grind of daily work: they carry light teaching load and enjoy government and foundation grants and subsidies for their research.
The professor’s project budget is the initial economic base that supports his independence within the university. The project budget sustains both the existence of graduate students and the fiscal solvency of the university, which takes a percentage “overhead” out of every project budget. The major feature of project money, whether its source is government or business, is that it is given on a contractual basis, a different contract for each project, so that the investigator’s independence rests upon his capacity to secure a succession of contracts. The ability to secure contracts is a genuine talent among professional intellectuals.
经过二十多年的快速发展，中国西部地区已奠定了一定的物质技术基础，社会保持稳定，市场经济体制正在逐步建立和完善，为西部经济持续快速增长创 造了有利的市场环境。中国政府坚持实行以扩大内需为主的发展方针，并把扩大内需与调整经济结构，推动科技进步，促进对外开放结合起来。随着西部大开发战略 的稳步推进，西部地区的资源优势， 经济优势将得到充分发挥，经济增长的质量和水平将进一步提高。