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  1、The causes of inequality are many and varied, and may be broadly grouped into three factors. The first is social condition or family background. In China, for example, someone born and bred in the city usually earns a higher income and enjoys better social services. The second is aptitude. The cleverer or stronger ones usually earn more and enjoy better conditions than the lesser endowed. The final one is ambition and diligence. All things being equal, someone who aims higher and works harder often earns more.

  译文:虽然导致不平等的原因很多,但我们可以大体上把它们分为三类。一类是社会条件或家庭出身,例如在中国,与出生于贫困农村的人们相比,一个出生在大城市的人通常拥有更多的收入和更好的社会处境。另外一类是自然天赋,有些人天生聪明或健壮,有些人则天生愚笨或孱弱,前者一般也会比后者拥有更多的收入并处于更好的状况。最后一类是抱负和努力程度,在其他条件相同的情况下,更有抱负和更努力的人们通常也会有更多的收入。

  2、Mass urbanization of the world’s population is an unprecedented trend worldwide. The most important reason why people are moving to cities is economic. People are moving to the cities because that’s where they can find jobs and earn money. Until the 20th century, the major source of employment, full and part-time, was farming. Now, according to recent statistics, no more than 15 percent of all jobs are connected to farming. Jobs now are being created in information technology, manufacturing and service areas, such as tourism and financing, and all of these new jobs are in or around major cities.

  译文:世界人口大规模的城市化在世界范围内达到史无前例的规模。驱使人们不断涌向城市的最重要原因是经济因素。人们都涌向城市是因为在城里可以找到工作和挣钱。在20世纪以前,就业的主要途径,不管是全职还是兼职,一直都是农耕。而现在,根据最近的统计数据,只有不到15%的工作是和农业相关的。越来越多的工作产生于信息技术产业、制造业和服务行业,如旅游业和融资,而所有这些新兴工作都在大城市及其周边地区。

  评析:本题是高口热点话题“城市化”,在07年9月的高口NTGF部分也涉及到过城市化的问题,前一题的句子翻译S2也提到了“人们搬进大城市的原因,是追求高品质的生活”,而这里主要围绕工作展开。考查词汇都在大纲范围内,像urbanization, manufacturing等都属于常见热词,考生在平时对这些词汇有所积累,翻译起来并不难。相对passage 2, 这段话稍微有点长,这也提醒考生注意平时多练习听写记笔记,熟悉常考话题,这样在考试时才能拿高分。

  3、Crime control is a pretty complex question, the first step, of course, is deterrence to stop people from committing crime in the first place. That involves the economy. Are there enough jobs for everyone? There should be. And social structure, are there enough support system? And so on. When people are convicted, and put in prison, then the goal should be to have reform programs inside prisons. So they want person comes out, they don’t return to a life of crime. If the education program and drug treatment program have been cut, convicted criminals are not being reformed.

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  译文:如何控制犯罪率是一个十分复杂的问题。首先,当然要防止犯罪行为的发生。包括从经济方面来说,是否有足够的工作提供给所有人?这个是应该要保证的;从社会机构来说,是否有足够的社会保障体系?等等。而一旦人们犯了罪,被关进监狱了,那么监狱里就需要有改造计划,可以让这些人出狱之后,不再回到犯罪生涯。如果停掉教育计划和毒品治疗方案,那就无法对这些犯人就行改造了。

  评析:本篇段落翻译选自2008年春季高口的听力原文,这就暗示了广大口译考生,历年的听力原文等材料是平时训练的重要资源,平时多积累,考试的时候方可胸有成竹。

  本篇段落关注的是一个常见的社会问题——如何控制犯罪率。段落给出了两点建议,一个是要防患未然;二是在对犯人实施改造计划。内容对考生来说应该并不陌生,语速也较为平缓,作为两段翻译的的第二段,在难度上是可以接受的。

  本段词汇较为常见。注意deterrence,意是“威慑,制止”,这里考生也可将名词转译为动词,译为“防止犯罪行为的发生”;另外,convict这个单词意为“判…有罪”,convicted criminals指“囚犯,犯人”。

  段落的句子结构较为简单。考生只需注意这个长句:When people are convicted, and put into prison, the goal should be to have reform programs inside prisons, so that when the person comes out, they don't return to a life of crime. 这个句子虽长,但只要理解语义,理清分句之间的逻辑关系,如when引导的是从句,the goal 后面的内容是主句,so that作的是目的状语。划分好结构,再按句子本身的语序进行翻译就可以了。

  总体而言,本篇英译中难度适中,主题也不偏颇另类,考生在平时注意对社会问题的积累,多进行真题练习,把握好时间和心态,相信会顺利完成翻译。

 

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