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文章过渡词知识

文章过渡词是篇章意义组织和传达的重要一部分。由于过渡词能够表示各种语义关系,如果考生在这方面有一定的知识,往往可以借助它们搞清文章的来龙去脉,不读具体细节,也能猜上文或者下文讲的是什么。更重要的是过渡词在文章中比较突出、醒目,在查证时容易找。在阅读中,如把它们圈出,答题就容易多了。因为绝大多数细节性的问题和它们有密切的联系。根据我们统计,问题中除了问大意、中心思想的,60%以上是问细节的,而只要问细节,90%以上牵涉到原因,特点,功能,理由,事实,优缺点等。而这些东西往往是用表示各种语义的过渡词来引出的。

根据过渡词表示的语义和逻辑关系,我们可以分类为:

1) 举例

for example, for instance, as a case in point, as an illustration, such as, say, e.g.

2) 释义

that is, that is to say, in other words, so to speak, or rather, namely

3) 原因

BECause, because of, for, as, owing to, thanks to, due to, now that, since, as a result of, attribute to, in that

4) 条件

if, unless, whether, provided that, given, as long as, on condition that, otherwise

5) 让步

despite, in spite of, though, although, nevertheless, but, however, admittedly, it is true…but, after all

6) 结果

for this reason, therefore, consequently, accordingly, hence, as a result, thus, in short, in a word, to sum up, to conclude

7)比较

similarly, like, likewise, in the same way, much……, as much, no more……, than, just as…… so

8)对照

whereas, instead, however, unlike, on the contrary, in contrast, on the other hand, while, some……, others

9)层进

first, in the first place, to begin with, second, next, in addition to, besides, moreover, furthermore, third, finally

10)强调

indeed, in fact, certainly, particularly, above all, most importantly, worst of all

11)目的

in order to, in an effort to, so as to, in order that, for fear that, in case, least

12)先后

shortly after, earlier, later, afterwards, after, before, once, meanwhile, since, until, when, while, the moment, as soon as

13)指示

this, that, these, this accounts for, this helps explain, that's why

如何做判断是非的题目

是非题也称之为正误判断题,因为问的是选项中对文章中的事实的转述是否真实,提法是否正确,文章或作者是否提及。例如:

Which of the following statements is (not) true?

Which of the following is (not) mentioned in the passage?

Which of the following does not explain _______ ?

All of the following are true except ________.

可见这些问题的四个选项要么是"一正三误",即一项是对的,是符合文章事实的,其余三项均是错的;要么是"一误三正",即一项是错的,是不合原文事实的,其余三项均是正确的。

解答这类问题,头脑应当清楚:问题是要求把正确的选项圈出,还是要求把错误的选项圈出。有的考生不看清问题,就去选择选项,想当然地把正确的,符合文章事实的一项圈出,而问题明明问的是Which of the following is not true (mentioned),结果误选。

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