162"One often hears about the need for individuals to take responsibility for their own lives. However, the conditions in which people find themselves have been largely established long before people become aware of them. Thus, the concept of personal responsibility is much more complicated and unrealistic than is often assumed."
162 人所处条件是预先决定的，但人们可以通过personal responsibility 改变
Take a child in today's Africa，whether he/she would be in the future, it is entirely possible that he/she is suffering the poverty, huger or even HIV/AIDS in the South Africa. As it is the condition there, the poor situations in the whole country. Of course, it is not the child's fault, or even the parents'.It is made, to some extent, by history, by the unequal economic systems between the rich and poor nations, and the governments here.
Martin Luther King, the most famous civil-rights leader in his time and still today. Though born in a rich family and served the good education, when facing the choice whether to stay in the South, where black people were enjoying a better life, or go to the North, where the brothers were still suffering from injustice; he made the decisive choice to leave for the North and to struggle for the civil rights for all the Negro. It is his personal responsibility rather than the conditions he were in at that time made him so.
Consider, the 2004 Nobel Peace Prize Laureate: Wangari Maanthai . When confronting the deforestations in Kenya, the women did not give up her dream, instead, she chose to build a better world for the women there, and for the new generation in future. After 30-years “Green Belt Movement”, under her leadership and for all the efforts done by the once suffered women, Kenya witnesses great improvements both in natural environment and also other areas.
162T 个体与整体因果 "One often hears about the need for individuals to take responsibility for their own lives. However, the conditions in which people find themselves have been largely established long before people become aware of them. Thus, the concept of personal responsibility is much more complicated and unrealistic than is often assumed162. 我们经常听到某个人说为了生活他需要些什么。但是，很多情况下人们早已创造了条件，只是很多人很久以后才会意识到。所以个人责任比我们想象的要复杂虚幻得多
① born condition: AIDS /born in a slum put up with
② (社会大环境)Czar Peter : 被认为是俄国最杰出(preeminent)的沙皇(czar)。当时俄国十分落后：农奴(serf)增加，合法权利减少;俄国错过文艺复兴(Renaissance)和宗教改革(Reformation)的最好时期;科学停滞不前。而西欧一片繁荣。于是进行了西方化改革：发展科学，改革社会风俗，使得俄国成为列强之一。
③ (个人小环境)若彼得大帝太特殊，也有人不屈的奋斗来改变它们的命运(fate).如：Armstrong, negro,生于slum,贫穷使得他没有正规的学习音乐， 13 岁时因向天空开枪，被送进感化院(bridewell)。后来组建乐队，自己当歌手，并极大地发展了爵士乐。但丁 (Dante 1265-1321) 参考事迹：童年父母双亡，后拜当时的著名学者拉丁尼为师，之后勤奋自学，从而获得了渊博的知识，音乐绘画都很有造诣。青年时候参加反封建贵族的斗争，1300 年斗争胜利后曾任行政官，1302年教会反动势力反扑，没收其财产，将其流放，在以后近二十年的流放生涯中，但丁写出了牛作《神曲》
☆☆164T "Sometimes imagination is a more valuable asset than experience. People who lack experience are free to imagine what is possible and thus can approach a task without constraints of established habits and attitudes." 164. 有时侯想象力比实际经验更有价值。缺乏实际经验的人有很自由的想象空间，他们知道了什么是可能的，然后就会去找到一个完成的方法，而不受固有的习惯和态度的限制
① imagination 为科学提供新的发展和新理论的演绎creating。有的人会说贡献都是实验室里做出来的，但实际上，没有天才的想象力，怎么能想到DNA 的双螺旋结构
② 即使是纯粹的imagination 也能给我们带来stunning feelings.如：如果说Mozart 这个天才带来的纯粹是艺术上的享受，Harry Potter 则不仅带来了happiness, 还有无限商机
③ 但大多数情况下，Without 经验, imagination is nothing more than a beautiful dream. Perpetual motion, 欧文 ( Robert Owen)
④ 经验其实是以前经验和想象的结果。experience is raw materials needed to actualize imagination。最好是将二者结合