87"In any field of inquiry, the beginner is more likely than the expert to make important discoveries."
1、承认beginner因 curiosity 和 courage，容易比保守专家发现问题,innovate, critical thinking
Watson and Crick, the discoverers of DNA structure, are the beginners in biology.
Einstein published four most famous papers in his twenties. And once he said,” when I first touch the
theory of classic mechanic, I feel that there are some problems in it." It is his ability of critical thinking
and not to agree the authority blindly, that finally results that he put forward to the famous theory of
relativity and lead the people to explore the world of microcosmic and high-speed.
The institute of mathematics in Chinese Academy of Science receives hundreds of letters from
amateurs every year, each of them claims that he has proved Goldbach's conjecture. But the
mathematicians find that most of these demonstrations lack the elementary knowledge of the number
theory, and none of so-called demonstrations can be verified.
Newton once said :"If I have seen further, it is by standing on the shoulders of giants.", and these
"shoulders of giants" are knowledge, methods, experience that had been passed down from our
antecessor, and these are the foundations of making a discovery.
3、专家 ready to make significant discoveries
Darwin, for instance, devoted himself in biology since he was a child, and after long time
investigation and researching, he found that all species were evolved by natural selection from simple
and preliminary conditions, and wrote his famous book "The Origin of Species".
Another, Einstein, who found the special and general relativity, the theory that revolutionized
modern thought on the nature of space and time, based on decades of working in physics. Even in art
world, the discoveries are still made upon long time studying. A case in point is Monet, a famous
painter known as the founder of impressionism, spent most of his life examining the effect of changing
light and atmosphere on a subject.