1. rife / strife / stifle
rife: If you say that something, usually something bad, is rife in a place or that the place is rife with it, you mean that it is very common.
strife: Strife is strong disagreement or fighting. (FORMAL)
stifle: If someone stifles something you consider to be a good thing, they prevent it from continuing.(=repress)
If you stifle your natural feelings or behavior, you prevent yourself from having those feelings or behaving in that way.(=suppress)
2. retrench / entrench
retrench: If a person or organization retrenches, they spend less money. (FORMAL)
entrench: If something such as power, a custom, or an idea is entrenched, it is firmly established, so that it would be difficult to change it.
3. pejorative / prerogative
pejorative: A pejorative word or expression is one that expresses criticism of someone or something. (FORMAL)
prerogative: If something is the prerogative of a particular person or group, it is a privilege or a power that only they have. (FORMAL)
. patent / latent / salient / valiant
latent: Latent is used to describe something which is hidden and not obvious at the moment, but which may develop further in the future.
salient: The salient points or facts of a situation are the most important ones. (FORMAL)
valiant: A valiant action is very brave and determined, though it may lead to failure or defeat.
5. imminent / preeminent / prominent / eminent
imminent: If you say that something is imminent, especially something unpleasant, you mean it is almost certain to happen very soon.
preeminent: If someone or something is pre-eminent in a group, they are more important, powerful, or capable than other people or things in the group. (FORMAL)
6. loutish / outlandish
loutish: If you describe a man or a boy as loutish, you are critical of them because their behavior is impolite and aggressive.
7. sprout / spout / flout / pout / tout
sprout: start to grow
spout: A spout of liquid is a long stream of it which is coming out of something very forcefully.( = jet)
If you say that a person spouts something, you disapprove of them because they say something which you do not agree with or which you think they do not honestly feel.
flout: If you flout something such as a law, an order, or an accepted way of behaving, you deliberately do not obey it or follow it.
pout: If someone pouts, they stick out their lips, usually in order to show that they are annoyed or to make themselves sexually attractive.
tout: If someone touts something, they try to sell it or convince people that it is good.
If someone touts for business or custom, they try to obtain it. (mainly BRIT)
8. flout / flaunt
flaunt: If you say that someone flaunts their possessions, abilities, or qualities, you mean that they display them in a very obvious way, especially in order to try to obtain other people's admiration.
flout - 蔑视
9. apt / opt / adept / adapt / adopt
opt: If you opt for something, or opt to do something, you choose it or decide to do it in preference to anything else.
apt：(1) 合适的(2)有倾向的(3) 聪敏的
10. swift / sift / rift / drift / thrift
sift: If you sift through something such as evidence, you examine it thoroughly.
rift: A rift between people or countries is a serious quarrel or disagreement that stops them having a good relationship.
swift - 快速的
thrift - 节约的
drift - 漂移