青年人网24小时滚动更新
24小时滚动更新(词汇辅导)                       发布时间

  离婚,有能力的一方要向有需要而又无能力的对方支付抚养费(旧时汉语做“赡养费”)。这种抚养费即赡养费,如众所周知,便是"alimony".不用说, “alimony"的前提是夫妇关系。如果只是所谓”朋友(pals)关系,则双方在结束“朋友”关系时,当然谈不上谁给谁"alimony"的问题。但当前的美国男女,关系复杂——不结婚也不准备结婚而公然同居者大有人在。这种关系终止时,“alimony"虽谈不上,而一方却要对方给一笔钱,那又怎么办呢?这笔钱英语怎么说好呢?

  好办得很:双方虽非夫妇,也总算“朋友”(pals)了一阵;虽无离婚夫妇间的"alimony"可谈,却有 “朋友”的“抚养费”即“朋友”十“抚养费”:=“pal+alimony”=“palimony"可以争取。这个由此产生的融合词"palimony" 近年来颇为引人注目,姑举三例:

  Michelle Triola Marvin filed a breach“contract claim against actor Lee Marvin for half Of his $3.6 mil—lion earnings during the period of six and a half years when they lived together,but were not married.Ms. Marvin said the actor had expressed the intention of sharing his assets with her;therefore,she argued,at the dissolution Of their relationship she deserved a property settlement comparable to that due a wife.In a 1976 landmark case,the California Supreme Court overruled 2 lower courts,deciding that Ms. Marvin had the right to sue for payment of such ”palimony“。

  -The World Almanac&Bookas per The Study of Currenttember 1980,p.35

  Palimony,the term for sharing money after an unmarried couple have split, survives the Lee Marvin case

  ——Time,January 28,1980,p.60

  Not since the Lee Marvin“Palimony''ease has a Hol—lywood courtroom drama attracted such attention.

  ——Time,March 23,1981,p.58

  · 如前所述,这种尚未结婚也不打算结婚而又经常公然一起同居的男女在美国大有人在。这种人的存在给英语造成了一定的困难:既不能称之为"fiance (e)“,又不能名之以”boy/girl friend“!究竟如何称呼是好呢?有说”live-in boy/girl friend"的,有说“chamber-mate"的,似乎都不贴切。这就是下例中提出来的”语言难题“ (linguist problem)。美国人口调查局总给了这种人一个比较确切的名称——”合用住所的异性伙伴“。请看:

  How to handle the linguistic problem of what to call the person with whom one`s daughter lives?……The Census Bureau call them“Partners of the Opposite Sex Sharing Living Quarters''or PossLQs.

  ——Time,November 27,1978,p.49

  A woman from Dallas took her PossLQ home for the weekend recently to meet her parents.

  ——Ibid·,p.50

  从最后一例来看,PossLQs们在父母面前竟然如此大模大样,社会风气可见一斑。却说源于公文的“PossLQ"在日常语言中使用究竟不大方便。于是有些父母就把子女的PossLQ称做”fiend-in—law"以区别于"son-in—law"和"daughter-in—law“云。

  以上虽说了那么些有关婚姻的词语,对“订婚”却只字不谈,未免失责。为此,特补充如下。

  “订婚”通常叫做"engagement“,那是一般用语。在汉语法学术浯中,则除”订婚“之外,多作”婚约“——如”解除婚约“中的”婚约“。汉语中虽有”解除婚约“,却未闻有说”解除订婚“的。

  “订婚”也好,“婚约”也好,既有“订”、有“约”,顾名思义,当然是一种契约——是婚姻的“预约”,即男女双方预先约定今后结婚。如众所周知,英语是 “marriage".但千万不要把”婚约“译成”contract of marriage"、“marriage contract”或"marital contract“——那都是”结婚“!

  那么,“婚约”的英语是什么呢?——“contract to marry”是也。

  不信,请比较以下三个实例(例1为我国新婚姻法的第二章“结婚”的英译;例2、3均见于You and the Law一书):

  1.ChapterⅡ

  Marriage Contract

  ——"China`s Marriage Law“,Peking Review,No.11,1981,p.24

  2. The fact that none of these considerations may be mentioned at the time Of marriage doesn't make them less binding.They are inherent in the marital contract.

  ——You and the Law,1980,p.209

  3.You also cannot assign your contract to marry.(婚约也不能转让)

  ———Ibid.

  从结构着眼,“marriage contract”乃是“contract of marriage'”的一种变体,而“marriage contract”中的定语名词换成形容词,就成了它的另一种变体——"marital contract“。

  结婚,在英美法(Anglo-American Law)来看,同买卖一样——都是一种契约即合同。“买卖”本身(作为一种契约)英语可作“contract of sale",而买卖的预约(即为了今后的买卖而预先订立的契约),则是”contract to sell“。”contract of sale"与“contract to sell"指的是两事而不是一码事(下例中用连词"and"而不用”or'就是结构上的证明),不容混淆。请看:

  Because a contract of sale and a contract to sell resemble other contracts,the remedies available to both sides for nonperformance are similar to the usual remedies for breach of contract

  ——You and the Law,1980,pp.224-5

  谈“结婚”、“订婚”而竟谈到“买卖合同”了,似乎有点不像话。但是读者一定很明白,我们是要从结构上用“contract of sale'”与“contract to sell"之各不相同作为旁证(corroborative evidence),借以论证"contract to marry”与"contract of marriage"(包括其变体在内)之迥然有异—前者为“订婚”,后者乃“结婚”。这是不可不辨

资讯索引栏目导航
关于我们营销中心广告联系联系我们网站地图法律声明友情链接最新更新医药更新
Copyright © 2005- 青年人网 (Qnr.Cn) All Rights Reserved 陕ICP备11003766号  
共青团陕西省委、河南省委及陕西人才中心权威支持(西安) 电 话:400-029-8884 传 真:029-85642660
百度大联盟黄金认证  十佳网络教育机构