1. Great comic artists assume that truth may bear all lights, and thus they seek to accentuate( 强调) contradictions in social action, not gloss over or transcend them by appeals to extrasocial symbols of divine ends, cosmic purpose, or laws of nature.
2. The hydrologic(水文地质的) cycle, a major topic in this science, is the complete cycle of phenomena through which water passes, beginning as atmospheric water vapor, passing into liquid and solid form as precipitation (降水量)), thence along and into the ground surface, and finally again returning to the form of atmospheric water vapor by means of evaporation and transpiration(散发).
3. My point is that its central consciousness—its profound understanding of class and gender as shaping influences on people’s lives—owes much to that earlier literary heritage, a heritage that, in general, has not been sufficiently valued by most contemporary literary critics.
4. In the early 1950’s historians who studies preindustrial Europe (which we may define here as Europe in the period from roughly 1300 to 1800) began, for the first time in large numbers, to investigate more of the preindustrial European population than the 2 or 3 percent who comprised the political and social elite (精华) : the kings, generals, judges, nobles, bishops, and local magnates (要人) who had hitherto (迄今) usually filled history books.
5. The historian Frederick J. Tuner wrote in the 1890’s that the agrarian(农民) discontent (不满) that had been developing steadily in the United States since about 1870 had been precipitated (加速) by the closing of the internal frontier—that is , the depletion (枯竭) of available new land needed for further expansion of the American farming system.
历史学家Frederick J Tuner在19世纪90年代写道：自1870年以来美国农民的不满一直在缓慢增长，直到1870年关闭了内部前沿以后就被加速了——就是说，用于扩张农业系统的新土地资源已经枯竭了。