Part I Writing (30 minutes)
Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition on the topic: Overseas Study at an Early Age. You should write at least 150 words following the outline given below:
Overseas Study at an Early Age
Part II Reading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning) (15 minutes)
Directions: In this part, you will have 15 minutes to go over the passage quickly and answer the questions on Answer Sheet 1. For questions 1-4, mark
Y (for YES) if the statement agrees with the information given in the passage;
N (for NO) if the statement contradicts the information given in the passage;
NG (for NOT GIVEN) if the information is not given in the passage.
For question 5-10, complete the sentences with the information given in the passage.
The Next Disaster: Are We Ready?
Are We Really Prepared?
After the attacks on September 11 and the hurricanes that slammed the Gulf Coast last year, you'd expect our major cities to be ready with disaster plans that will save lives and property. There's no doubt we'll be hit againmaybe even harderbecause the list of possible calamities(灾难)is long: from a bird flu pandemic to a massive California earthquake, to more monster storms, to another terrorist attack.
But are we really prepared to protect people, as well as their homes and businesses? Every major urban area has received federal funding, much of it from the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), in order to make their cities more secure. But there are no set criteria for measuring preparedness (the feds are working on that), and the quality of disaster plans varies widely throughout the country.
So we decided to do an independent assessment of 10 high-risk urban areas, focusing on key security indicators. We analyzed public data, consulted with federal and local emergency workers, and contacted the mayors' offices to gauge(测量)the readiness of these cities to meet both natural and man-made disasters.
Our criteria fell under three main categories: Emergency Readiness, Crisis Communications, and Medical Response.
Are there at least 1,000 first responders (such as police, fire and EMTs) per 100,000 residents? They're our first line of protection in almost any disaster situationprofessionals who are trained to handle everything from rescuing victims to providing first aid, to enforcing quarantines(封锁), to directing traffic for evacuations(疏散).
Are there federal search-and-rescue teams based within 50 miles? Large cities often have specialized teams to deal with such things as high-rise-building rescues or hazardous chemical spills. But these squads are sometimes small, ill-equipped, or run on a shoestring. This is not true of federal urban search-and-rescue task forces that the DHS supports across the country. Each task force is made of 62 members and 4 canines, as well as a "comprehensive cache" of equipment. DHS task forces are not automatically assigned; a city needs to apply and present its case.
Has the city or state earned "green status" from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention? Suppose that in the midst of a flu pandemic or bio terror attack, your city ran low on critical medicines. The CDC stands ready to help by distributing drugs and medical equipment from its Strategic National Stockpile. But the agency wants to know that a city or state is able to quickly mobilize hundreds of health workers and volunteers trained to handle the logistics, and has space set aside for storage and refrigeration. You're best off if your city has earned the CDC's "green status"even if the state itself has notbecause it means local health teams can handle the supplies on their own.
Does the city website explain clearly what to do in case of evacuation? Who can forget the images of stranded New Orleans residents, or the 5-mph crawl out of Houston? It turned out that New Orleans's evacuation plans were both inadequate and poorly communicated. One way cities can avoid a similar nightmare is to put clear and easy-to-find evacuation information on their websites. Some cities, such as Boston and Washington, post the preferred street routes. Others, like Las Vegas, won't disclose details due to security fears, but their websites may provide ways to quickly get evacuation details when you need them (such as numbers to call or alert services you can sign up for). Among the more important things to address are people without vehicles of their own (a huge failing in New Orleans) and instructions for pet owners.
Does the website include details for residents with special needs? In July 1995, a vicious heat wave killed nearly 500 people in Chicago; a disproportionate number of them were older residents who lived alone. In any crisis, the elderly and disabled can be uniquely vulnerable. That's why cities such as Houston are creating registries of residents who would need special help. Such lists would indicate, for instance, that a certain person in a certain apartment building is wheel-chair-bound. Other cities are instructing people with disabilities to call 911 for assistancethough this relies on phone systems that could be overloaded or go dead. If a city's disaster planning shows no awareness of special-needs people, it isn't complete.
Can first responderspolice, fire and medicaltalk to one another? On September 11, firefighters died inside the World Trade Center because they could not make contact with police helicopters trying to radio warnings. Incompatible communications is a country-wide problem, and converting or replacing decades-old radio systems can be a long, expensive process. Cities have gotten a big boost if they've taken part in RapidCom, a DHS program providing technical assistance and training that speeds up the transition.
Has the city adopted E911? Many cities have upgraded their 911 call centers in recent years, but they're even better prepared if they've incorporated "E911" (or "enhanced 911"). This technology enables emergency operators to identify the precise location of cell-phone callers through GPS systems. If you wind up stranded in floodwaters, E911 could save your life.
Does the city provide 24-hour emergency alerts? What if an evacuation order goes out, but it's 3 a.m. and you're sound asleep? Not a problem if your city has a way of alerting you at any time of day. Some rely on street sirens(警报器)to do the trick. Others have used their websites to invite residents to sign up for e-mail notifications or automated phone calls in an emergency.
Are there at least 500 hospital beds for every 100,000 residents? Getting to victims quickly is a critical first step. But you'd better have a place to take them for treatment. A reasonable standard, according to preparedness experts, is 500 hospital beds for every 100,000 peoplea ratio that would likely mean a city could find enough spare beds in an emergency. Of course, beds alone won't s help a massive number of burn victims or people suffering from chemical exposure unless the hospital is prepared to treat them. But all the cities in our survey have specialty units in their hospitals that can handle such cases.
Are local teams trained to respond quickly and work together? If and urban area was targeted by weapons of mass destruction, city health officials couldn't just wait for federal help to arrive. First responders and hospital would need to react right away. They could also need medical volunteerssay, to help vaccinate people or distribute medicines and supplies. How to ensure that all these professionals and volunteers work together as seamlessly as possible? If a city is part of DHS's Metropolitan Medical Response System, it has obtained federal assistance in developing plans, and has received critical training and equipment.
Are there labs nearby that specialize in biological and chemical threats? The CDC is on the cutting edge with its Laboratory Response Networkintegrated labs nationwide that have the equipment and expertise to quickly identify pathogens and toxic chemicals. An LRN lab in Florida was the first to detect anthrax(炭疽热)in terrorist mailings in 2001. Laboratories can be members only if they have highly trained staff and exceptional facilities, as well as track record of testing accuracy. A handful of LRN labs qualify as "Level 1", meaning they can test for chemical poisons such as mustard and nerve agents.
1. A bird flu, a massive earthquake, a monster storm and a terrorist attack are all threats to major cities in the U.S.
2. The author does an assessment of all high-risk urban areas in the U.S.
3. Policemen, firemen and emergency doctors all can be called first responders.
4. Each federal urban search-and-rescue task force is made up of at least 60 members.
5. If a city has earned the CDC's green status "green status", it means that its local health teams can ________ on their own.
6. You can get evacuation details through the ways provided by the website of Las Vegas though it doesn't disclose the details due to ________.
7. Incompatible communications is a country-wide problem in the U.S. because of the ________ which should be converted or replaced.
8. Emergency operators can identify the precise location of cell-phone callers through GPS systems with the use of ________.
9. According to preparedness experts, if a city has at least 500 hospital beds for every 100,000 residents, it could find ________ in an emergency.
10. As a part of DHS's Metropolitan Medical Response System, a city can obtain ________ in developing plans
Part IV Reading Comprehension (Reading in Depth) (25 minutes)
Directions: In this section, there is a short passage with 5 questions or incomplete statements. Read the passage carefully. Then answer the questions or complete statements in the fewest possible words. Please write your answers on Answer Sheet 2.
By the mind-nineteenth century, the term "icebox" had entered the American language, but ice was still only beginning to affect the diet of ordinary citizens in the United States. The ice trade grew with the growth of cities. Ice was used in hotels, taverns(酒馆), and hospitals, and by some forward-looking city dealers in fresh meat, fresh fish, and butter. After the Civil War (1861-1865), as ice was used to refrigerate freight cars, it also came into household use. Even before 1880, half of the ice sold in New York, Philadelphia, and Baltimore, and one-third of that sold in Boston and Chicago, went to families for their own use. This had become possible because a new household convenience, the icebox, a precursor of the modern fridge, had been invented.
Making an efficient icebox as not as easy as we might now suppose. In the early nineteenth century, the knowledge of the physics of heat, which was essential to a science of refrigeration, was rudimentary(未发展的). The commonsense notion that the best icebox was one that prevented the ice from melting was of course mistaken, for it was the melting of the ice that performed the cooling. Nevertheless, early efforts to economize ice included wrapping up the ice in blankets, which kept the ice from doing its job. Not until near the end of the nineteenth century did inventors achieve the delicate balance of insulation and circulation needed for an efficient icebox.
But as early as 1803, and ingenious Maryland farmer, Thomas Moore, had been on the right track. He owned a farm about twenty miles outside the city of Washington, for which the village of Georgetown was the market center. When he used an icebox of his own design to transport his butter to market, he found that customers would pass up the rapidly melting stuff in the tubs of his competitors to pay a premium price for his butter, still fresh and hard in neat, one-pound bricks. One advantage of his icebox, Moore explained, was that farmers would no longer have to travel to market at night in order to keep their produce cool.
47. What is the topic of the passage?
48. Where was ice used after the Civil War?
49. What was essential to a science of refrigeration according to the passage?
50. It can be inferred from the passage that the theoretical foundation of ice box should be that ________.
51. Without an ice box, farmers had to go to the market at night because ________.
Directions: There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked [A], [B], [C] and [D]. You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the center.
Questions 52 to 66 are based on the following passage.
Racket, din clamor, noise. Whatever you want to call it, unwanted sound is America's most widespread nuisance. But noise is more than just a nuisance. It constitutes a real and present danger to people's health. Day and night, at home, at work, and at play, noise can produce serious physical and psychological stress. No one is immune to this stress. Though we seem to adjust to noise by ignoring it, the ear, in fact, never closes and the body still respondssometimes with extreme tension, as to a strange sound in the night.
The annoyance we feel when faced with noise is the most common outward symptom of the stress building up inside us. Indeed, because irritability is so apparent, legislators have made public annoyance the basis of many noise abatement(消除) programs. The more subtle and more serious health hazards associated with stress caused by noise traditionally have been given much less attention. Nevertheless, when we are annoyed or made irritable by noise, we should consider these symptoms fair warning that other things may be happening to us, some of which may be damaging to our health.
Of the many health hazards related to noise, hearing loss is the most clearly observable and measurable by health professionals. The other hazards are harder to pin down. For many of us, there may be a risk that exposure to the stress of noise increases susceptibility to disease and infection. The more susceptible among us may experience noise as a complicating factor in heart problems and other diseases. Noise that causes annoyance and irritability in healthy persons may have serious consequences for those already ill in mind or body.
Noise affects us throughout our lives. For example, there are indications of effects on the unborn child when mothers are exposed to industrial and environmental noise. During infancy and childhood, youngsters exposed to high noise levels may have trouble falling asleep and obtaining necessary amounts of rest.
why, then, is there not greater alarm about these dangers? Perhaps it is because the link between noise and many disabilities or diseases has not vet been conclusively demonstrated. Perhaps it is because we tend to dismiss annoyance as a price to pay for living in the modern world. It may also be because we still think of hearing loss as only an occupational hazard.
52. The phrase "immune to" (Line 3, Para. 1) are used to mean ________.
[A] unaffected by [B] hurt by
[C] unlikely to be seen by [D] unknown by
53. The author's attitude toward noise would best be described as ________.
[A] unrealistic [B] traditional [C] concerned [D] hysterical
54. Which of the following best states the main idea of the passage?
[A] Noise is a major problem; most people recognize its importance.
[B] Although noise can be annoying, it is not a major problem.
[C] Noise is a major problem and has not yet been recognized as such.
[D] Noise is a major problem about which nothing can be done.
55. The author condemns noise essentially because it ________.
[A] is against the law [B] can make some people irritable
[C] is a nuisance [D] is a danger to people's health
56. The author would probably consider research about the effects noise has on people to be ________.
[A] unimportant [B] impossible
[C] a waste of money [D] essential
Questions 57 to 61 are based on the following passage.
Freshwater life itself has never come easy in the Middle East. Ever since The Old Testament(旧约全书), God punished man with 40 days and 40 nights of rain. Water supplies here have been dwindling. The rainfall only comes in winter and drains quickly through the semiarid land, leaving the soil to bake and to thirst for next November.
The region's accelerating population, expanding agriculture, industrialization, and higher living standards demand more freshwater. Drought and pollution limit its a availability. War and mismanagement waste it. Said Joyce Starr of the Global Water Summit Initiative, based in Washington, D.C. "Nations like Israel and Jordan are swiftly sliding into that zone where they are suing all the water resources available to them. They have only 15 to 20 years left before their agriculture, and ultimately their food security, is threatened."
I came here to examine this crisis in the making, to investigate fears that "water wars" are imminent, that water has replaced oil as the region's most contentious commodity. For more than two months I traveled through three river valleys and seven nationsfrom southern Turkey down the Euphrates River to Syria, Iraq, and on to Kuwait; to Israel and Jordan, neighbors across the valley of the Jordan; to the timeless Egyptian Nile.
Even amid the scarcity there are haves and have-nots. compared with the United States, which in 1990 had freshwater potential of 10,000 cubic meters (2.6 million gallons) a year for each citizen, Iraq had 5,500, Turkey had 4,000, and Syria had more than 2,800. Egypt's potential was only 1,100. Israel had 460. Jordan had a meager 260. But these are not firm figures, because upstream use of river water can dramatically alter the potential downstream.
Scarcity is only one element of the crisis. Inefficiency is another, as is the reluctance of some water-poor nations to change priorities from agriculture to less water-intensive enterprises. Some experts suggest that if nations would share both water technology and resources, they could satisfy the region's population, currently 159 million. But in this patchwork of ethnic and religious rivalries, water seldom stands alone as an issue. It is entangled in the politics that keep people from trusting and seeking help from one another. Here, where water, like truth, is precious, each nation tends to find its own water and supply its own truth.
As Israeli hydrology professor Uri Shamir told me:" If there is political will for peace, water will not be a hindrance. If you want reasons to fight, water will not be a hindrance. If you want reasons to fight, water will give you ample opportunities."
57. Why does the author use the phrase "for next November" (Line 3, Para. 1)?
[A] According to the Old Testament freshwater is available only in November.
[B] Rainfall comes only in winter starting from November.
[C] Running water systems will not be ready until next November.
[D] It is a custom in that region that irrigation to crops is done only in November.
58. What is NOT the cause for the imminent water war?
[A] Lack of water resources. [B] Lack of rainfall.
[C] Inefficient use of water. [D] Water has replaced oil.
59. One way for the region to use water efficiently is to ________.
[A] develop other enterprises that cost less water
[B] draw a plan of irrigation for the various nations
[C] import water from water-rich nations
[D] stop wars of any sort for good and all
60. Uri Shamir's viewpoint is that ________.
[A] nations in that region are just fighting for water
[B] people there are thirsty for peace instead of water
[C] water is no problem as long as there is peace
[D] those nations have every reason to fight for water
61. The author's tone in the article can be described as ________.
[A] depressing [B] urgent [C] joking [D] mocking
Part V Error Correction (15 minutes)
Directions: This part consists of a short passage. In this passage, there are altogether 10 mistakes, one in each numbered line. You may have to change a word, add a word or delete a word. Mark out the mistakes and put the corrections in the blanks provided. If you change a word, cross it out and write the correct word in the corresponding blank. If you add a word, put an insertion mark (∧) in the right place and write the missing word in the blank. If you delete a word, cross it out and put a slash (/) in the blank.
Television is rapidly becoming the literature of our periods. 1. time/times/period
Many of the arguments having used for the study of literature 2. /study of television. 3. theQ as a school subject are valid for
The European Union had approved a number ofgenetically modified crops until late 1998. But growing public concern over its supposed environmental and health 62. ________ risks led several EU countries to demand a moratorium(暂时禁止)on imports of any new GM produce. By late 1999there were enough such country to block any new approvals 63. ________of GM produce. Last year, America filed a complaint at the WTO about the moratorium, arguing that it was an illegal trade barrier because there is no scientific base for it. 64. ________As more studies have been completed on the effects of GM crops, the greens' case for them has weakened. 65. ________
Much evidence has emerged of health risks from eating them. 66. ________And, overall, the studies have shown that the environmental effects on modified crops are not always as serious as the 67. ________greens claim. Nevertheless, environmentalists continue to find fault of such studies and argue that they are inconclusive. 68. ________
While Americans seem be happy enough to consume 69. ________food made from GM crops, opinion polls continue to show tht European consumers dislike the idea. Europeans seem be taking the attitude which, since there remains the slightest 70. ________possibility of adverse consequences and since it is clear how 71. ________they, as consumers, benefit from GM crops, they would rather not run the risk.
Part VI Translation (5 minutes)
Directions: Complete the following sentences on Answer Sheet 2 by translating into English the Chinese given in brackets.
72. The Grand Canyon is ________________(最宽处达两万四千米).
73. If you had followed my advice, ________________(你现在就能完成工作了).
74. In view of the practical need of society, ________________(有越来越多的人对学习英语感兴趣).
75. A good book is a best friend ________________(从不拒绝我们).
76. It was not until last Friday ________________(他读完了他妈妈送给他的那本书).
Part I Writing
Overseas Study at an Early Age
Nowadays, more and more parents are eager to send their children to study abroad before they finish high school by whatever means and at whatever cost.
It is quite understandable for parents to send their children to study overseas because they place high expectations on their children. They are encouraged by the success stories of those who have completed their overseas study. With the development of economy, companies and institutions at home are giving more and more emphasis on overseas experiences, too.
Consequently, pursuing overseas study has become a kind of short cut in gaining a better future. Moreover, there is still one underlying reason for this rush-economic reason. The rapid economic progress in the past few years in China has enabled more and more parents to afford the huge cost for their children’s overseas study.
As for me, overseas study is surely a helpful way to get both advanced knowledge and necessary experiences, but overseas study at an early age is neither necessary nor beneficial. The students may be too young to either tend for themselves or think for themselves. I do think that overseas study can contribute to one’s self-improvement, but it’s better to be pursued after one has finished his college study at home, when he is more capable of learning and living on his own .
Part II Reading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning).
1. Y 根据题干中的信息词bird flu和major cities定位到第一个小标题下的第一段，可知作者认为主要城市还会遭受袭击，因为有很多灾难可能发生，包括禽流感、大地震、暴风雨、恐怖袭击等，再结合全文可知，本文是针对美国城市展开的，故该句表述正确。
2. NG 根据题干中的信息词assessment和high-risk urban areas定位到第一个小标题下的第三段，可知作者等人对l0个高危城市地区进行了独立评估，主要针对的是安全指数，但文章并没有说明受评估的l0个城市地区是否涵盖了美国所有的高危城市。
3. Y 根据题干中的信息词policemen和first responders定位到第二个小标题下的第一段，可知括号中的内容是对first responders的解释说明，即警察、消防员和急诊医士( EMTs) 等都是first responders，故该句表述正确。
4. N 根据题干中的信息词search-and-rescue task force和made up of定位到第二个小标题下的第二段，可知联邦城市搜救特遣部队都是由DHS扶持的，每支特遣部队都由62名队员、4只狗和各种仪器组成，故该句表述错误。
5. handle the supplies。根据题干中的信息词CDC's“green status”和local health teams定位到第二个小标题下第三段的最后，可知如果你所在的城市获得了green status那是最好不过了，因为那意味着地方医疗队可以自己应对补给问题，由此可得答案。
6. security fears。根据题干中的信息词evacuation details和Las Vegas定位到第二个小标题下的倒数第二段，可知拉斯维加斯等城市出于安全考虑，不在网站上公布疏散细节，但当你有需要时，网站可以提供电话号码等可以迅速获得疏散的方式。
7. decades-old radio systems。根据题干中的信息词incompatible communications和converted定位到第三个小标题下的第一段，可知通信不畅是全国(美国)性的问题，而修整或更换已使用数十年的无线电系统既费时又费钱，由此推断，通信不畅的原因是无线电系统年久失修，因此可得答案。
8. “E911”/“enhanced 911”。根据题干中的信息词precise location和GPS systems定位到第三个小标题下的第二段，可知E911使得处理紧急事故者可以通过全球定位系统确定打手机者的准确位置，由此可得答案。
9. enough spare beds。根据题干中的信息词preparedness experts、500和100，000定位到最后一个小标题下的第一段，可知预备专家指出，一个城市只有每10万人拥有500张病床，才能在紧急事故中找到足够多的空床位，由此可得答案。
10. federal assistance。根据题干中的信息词Metropolitan Medical Response System和developing plans定位到最后一个小标题下第二段的最后，可知一个城市如果属于DHS的城市医疗应对系统，就可以得到联邦政府在发展计划上的援助，还可以得到重要的培训和设备，由此可得答案。
Part IV Reading Comprehension ( Reading in Depth)
48. In refrigerating freight cars and households.
题目询问在内战后冰被用在哪些地方。根据题干关键词Civil War可以定位至文章第一段第四句话，由…ice was used to refrigerate freight cars…into household use可知问题的答案。
49. Knowledge of the physics of heat.
由题干关键词a science of refrigeration定位到原文第二段第二句话，….the knowledge of the physics of heat，which was essential to a science of refrigeration直接给出了问题的答案。
50. the melting of ice performed cooling
题目询问冰盒的理论原理是什么。可以定位到文章第二段的第三句话，….for it was the melting of the ice that performed the cooling，此句大意说当时人们以为阻碍冰融化才能有效制冷，但实际上这是错误的观点，因为只有在冰的融化过程中才能有效制冷。可见冰盒的理论原理就是the melting of ice performed cooling。
51. they wanted to keep their produce cool
由题干关键词farmers had to go to the market at night定位至原文最后一句话…was that farmers would no longer have to travel to market at night in order to keep their produce cool，大意是有了冰盒，他们不用再为了保证产品新鲜而半夜赶路去市场了。可见目的是to keep their produce cool。
52. A 语义题。文章第一段论述了噪音对人类身体健康的影响。短语immune to所在句主语为表示否定的no one，而整个句子表示肯定的含义：任何人都会受到噪音的影响。所以谓语动词也应表示否定意义。immune to意为“不受影响”，符合句意，所以A(未受影响)正确。
53. C 观点态度题。四个选项的意思分别为：A(不切实际的)、B(传统的)、C(关心的)、D(歇斯底里的)。通读全文可知，作者以较客观的口吻阐述了噪音对健康的影响，并对此表示关注，所以C正确。
54. C 主旨题。通读全文可知，文章主要论述了噪音是影响健康的主要原因，但人们并没有意识到噪音的危害之大，所以C正确。
55. D 细节题。由文章第一段第三、四句可知，噪音对人们的健康是一种危险，而且全文都在论述噪音的危害，所以D正确。
56. D 推断题。全文都在谈论噪音对人健康的危害，但人们并没有意识到这一点，所以可以推断，作者认为对噪音的影响的研究是非常必要的，所以D正确。
57. B 推断题。文章第一段最后一句提到，只有冬天下雨，而且雨后土地很快干涸，只能企盼来年的11月。可见冬天的11月开始下雨，所以B正确。
58. D 推断题。本题可采用排除法。由文章第二段前三句可知，即将到来的“水战”是由于对水的需求增大(即缺水)、干旱(即降水量小)和对水的浪费(即对水的利用率低)造成的，只有D(水取代了石油)不是“水战”的原因，故入选。
59. A 推断题。文章第五段第二句提到，低效率用水表现在有些缺水国不愿将发展重点从农业转移到耗水较少的产业上，由此推断，有效用水的方法之一就是发展用水少的产业，所以A正确。
60. C 细节题。由文章最后一段可知，Uri Shamir认为，只要政局稳定，水就不会成为障碍，所以C正确。
61. B 观点态度题。通读全文可知，作者分析了水的重要性和中东国家缺水的原因及后果，字里行间都表现出作者的紧迫感，所以B(紧迫的)正确。A(压抑的)，C(开玩笑的)，D(嘲笑的)均不正确。
Part V Error Correction
its指代的genetically modified crops(转基因农作物)为复数，所以应将its改成their。
such country是指前面要求暂停进口转基因农产品的一些欧盟国家，为复数，所以应将country改成 countries。
base意为“基础，基地”，basis(for)意为“基础，根据”，原句表达“科学根据”只能为scientific basis，而scientific base意为“科学基地”。此处还应注意的是不能受base on(基于)这个短语的影响而将for 改为on。
句中的the greens意为“环保主义者”，本句的意思是“环保主义者对……的反对削弱了。”所以应将for改为 against。
本句的意思是：“研究表明，改良后的农作物对环境造成的后果并没有像环保主义者所称的那样严重。”effect on意为“对……有影响”，effect of意为“……的后果”，所以应将on改为of。
find fault with是固定搭配，意为“批评，找茬”，所以应将of改为with。
seem to be是固定用法，意为“好像，似乎”，所以应在seem后面加to。
taking the attitude that…后面是同位语从句，所以不能用which，应将其改为that。
since前面的and表示前后语意一致，本句要表达的意思是：“因为欧洲人觉得仍然存在使用转基因食物的不良后果，且作为消费者，他们如何从转基因食物中获利也不清楚，所以他们不愿意冒风险(they would rather not run the risk)。”故应将clear改为unclear。
Part VI Translation
72. about twenty-four kilometers across at its widest point
表示具体宽度时，可用…is…(数字)wide;在表示具体跨度时，还可用…is…(数字) across。此处的主语为canyon，即峡谷，因此用across表示跨度最为合适。“最宽处”可译为at its widest point;英文中没有单词与“万”对应，因此要将“两万四千米”译为twenty-four kilometers。
73. you would be able to finish the work now
由给出的中英文可知，该句是对现在事实的虚拟，因此所译部分的谓语要采用would do的形式。此处“能”更多的是强调主观的“能力”，因此译为be able to。
74. there are more and more people(who are) interested in learning English
结合给出的中英文可知，所译部分可采用there be结构。“越来越多”译为more and more;“对学习英语感兴趣”可处理为“人”的后置定语或定语从句，其中“对……感兴趣”译为be interested in。
75. who never turns his back upon us
所给出的英文是一个简单句，因此所译部分应为从句或非谓语动词;再结合给出的中文可知，所译部分应是以friend为先行词，由who引导的定语从句。“拒绝”可译为refuse，但其对象通常是事物而不是人，而turn one’s back on/upon sb./sth.既可指对人的“拒绝”，也可指对事物的“拒绝”，符合句意。
76. that he finished reading that book his mother gave him
该句包含强调句型It was…that…，其中not until last Friday为被强调的部分，因此所译部分应为正常陈述语序。“读完”译为finish reading即可，但要注意其时态应与强调句型的时态保持一致，采用一般过去时。“他妈妈送他的”可处理为“书”的定语从句，而指代“书”的关系代词在从句中充当宾语，因此可省略。