Part I Writing.
Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a short essay entitled The Civil Servant Test Craze. Your essay should start with a brief description of the picture. You should write at least 150 words but no more than 200 words.
Women in 2011 made no significant gains in winning more top US business jobs, according to a study, but the head of the study said women are poised to make 36 in the year ahead.
The number of women who were board directors, corporate officers or top earners at Fortune 500 companies remained 37 unchanged, said the study by Catalyst, a nonprofit group that 38 opportunities for women in business.
The percentage of companies with women on the board of directors was 15.1 percent this year, compared with 14.8 percent in 2010, Catalyst said.
Also, the percentage of corporate officer positions 39 by women was 15.7 percent in 2011 and 15.4 percent in 2010, it said. The percentage of top earners in 2011 who were women was 6.2 percent, compared to 6.7 percent in 2010, it said.
The research on the Fortune 500 companies was 40 on data as of March 31, 2011. The slight changes in the numbers are not considered 41 significant, Catalyst said.
Nevertheless, given the changes in U.S. politics, the future for women in business looks more 42 , said Ilene Lang, president and chief executive 43 of Catalyst.
"Overall we're 44 to see change next year," Lang said. "When we look at shareholders, decision makers, the general public, they're looking for change. "
"What they're basically saying is, ' Don't give us 45 of the status quo (现状). Get new ideas in there, get some fresh faces,'" she said.
Directions: In this section, you are going to read a passage with ten statements attached to it. Each statement contains information given in one of the paragraphs. Identify the paragraph from which the information is derived.
You may choose a paragraph more than once. Each paragraph is marked with a letter. Answer the questions by marking the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2.
How Marketers Target Kids
A.Kids represent an important demographic to marketers because they have their own purchasing power, they influence their parents' buying decisions and they are the adult consumers of the future. Industry spending on advertising to children has exploded in the past decade, increasing from a mere $100 millidn in 1990 to more than $2 billion in 2000.
B. Parents today are willing to buy more for their kids because trends such as smaller family size, dual incomes and postponing children until later in life mean that families have more disposable income. As well, guilt can play a role in spending decisions as time-stressed parents substitute material goods for time spent with their kids. Here are some of the strategies marketers employ to target kids:Pester (纠缠) Power
C. Today's kids have more autonomy and decision-making power within the family than in previous generations,so it follows that kids are vocal about what they want their parents to buy. "Pester power" refers to children's ability to nag their parents into purchasing items they may not otherwise buy. Marketing to children is all about creating pester power, because advertisers know what a powerful force it can be.
D. According to the 2001 marketing industry book Kid fluence, pestering or nagging can be divided into two categories--"persistence" and "importance". Persistence nagging (a plea, that is repeated over and over again) is not as effective as the more sophisticated "importance nagging". This latter method appeals to parents' desire to provide the best for their children, and plays on any guilt they may have about not having enough time for their kids.
The Marriage of Psychology and Marketing
E. To effectively market to children, advertisers need to know what makes kids tick. With the help of well-paid researchers and psychologists, advertisers now have access to in-depth knowledge about children's developmental, emotional and social needs at different ages. Using research that analyzes children's behaviour, fantasy lives, art work, even their dreams, companies are able to craft sophisticated marketing strategies to reach young people.
F. The issue of using child psychologists to help marketers target kids gained widespread public attention in 1999, when a group of U.S. mental health professionals issued a public letter to the American Psychological Association (APA) urging them to declare the practice unethical. The APA is currently studying the issue.
Building Brand Name Loyalty
G. Canadian author Naomi Klein tracks the birth of "brand" marketing in her 2000 book No Logo. According to Klein, the mid-1980s saw the birth of a new kind of corporation--Nike, Calvin Klein, Tommy Hilfiger, to name a few--which changed their primary corporate focus from producing products to creating an image for their brand name. By moving their manufacturing operations to countries with cheap labour, they freed up money to create their powerful marketing messages. It has been a tremendously profitable formula, and has led to the creation of some of the most wealthy and powerful multi-national corporations the world has seen.
H.Marketers plant the seeds of brand recognition in very young children, in the hopes that the seeds will grow into lifetime relationships. According to the Center for a New American Dream, babies as young as six months of age can form mental images of corporate logos and mascots. Brand loyalties can be established as early as age two, and by the time children head off to school most can recognize hundreds of brand logos. While fast food, toy and clothing companies have been cultivating brand recognition in children for years, adult-oriented businesses such as banks and automakers are now getting in on the act.
Buzz or Street Marketing
I. The challenge for marketers is to cut through the intense advertising clutter(杂乱) in young people's lives. Many companies are using "buzz marketing" --a new twist on the tried-and-true "word of mouth" method. The idea is to find the coolest kids in a community and have them use or wear your product in order to create a buzz around it. Buzz, or "street marketing", as it's also called, can help a company to successfully connect with the elusive (难找的) teen market by using trendsetters to give them products "cool" status.
J. Buzz marketing is particularly well-suited to the Interact, where young "Net promoters" use chat rooms and blogs to spread the word about music, clothes and other products among unsuspecting users.
Commercialization in Education
K. School used to be a place where children were protected from the advertising and consumer messages that permeated their world--but not anymore. Budget shortfalls (亏空，差额) are forcing school boards to allow corporations access to students in exchange for badly needed cash, computers and educational materials.
L. Corporations realize the power of the school environment for promoting their name and products. A school setting delivers a captive youth audience and implies the endorsement of teachers and the educational system. Marketers are eagerly exploiting this medium in a number of ways, including: 1 ) sponsored educational materials; 2) supplying schools with technology in exchange for high company visibility; 3) advertising posted in classrooms, school buses, on computers in exchange for funds; 4) contests and incentive programs: for example, the Pizza Hut reading incentives program in which children receive certificates for free pizza if they achieve a monthly reading goal; 5 ) sponsoring school events.
M. The Internet is an extremely desirable medium for marketers wanting to target children. It's part of youth culture. This generation of young people is growing up with the Interact as a daily and routine part of their lives. Kids are often online alone, without parental supervision. Unlike broadcasting media, which have codes regarding advertising to kids, the Interact is unregulated. Sophisticated technologies make it easy to collect information from young people for marketing research, and to target individual children with personalized advertising.
Marketing Adult Entertainment to Kids
N . Children are often aware of and want to see entertainment meant for older audiences because it is actively marketed to them. In a report released in 2000, the U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC) revealed how the movie, music and video games industries routinely market violent entertainment to young children.
O.The FTC studied 44 films rated "Restricted", and discovered that 80 per cent were targeted to children under
17. Marketing plans included TV commercials run during hours when young viewers were most likely to be watching. The FTC report also highlighted the fact that toys based on characters from mature entertainment are often marketed to young children. Mature rated video games are advertised in youth magazines; and toys based on "Restricted" movies and M-rated video games are marketed to children as young as four.
Guilt can affect parents' spending decisions because they don't have enough time for their kids.
47、The Center for a New American Dream pointed out that brand loyalties could be formed as early as age two.
48、School boards allow corporations to access to students because they need money and educational materials badly.
49、The FTC report highlighted the fact that toys based on characters from mature entertainment are often marketed to young children.
50、For this generation of young people, the Internet is a daily and routine part of their lives.
51、According to Kid fluence, "persistence nagging" is less effective than the more sophisticated "importance nagging".
52、According to a report released by the U.S. Federal Trade Commission, the movie, music and video games industries usually market violent entertainment to young children.
53、Buzz marketing is well-suited to the Internet because the interactive environment can spread messages effectively.
54、A group of U.S. mental health professionals think that it is unethical to use child psychologists to help marketers target kids.
55、According to the Pizza Hut reading incentives program, children will receive certificates for free pizza if they achieve a monthly reading goal.
Directions: There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D ). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
Like most people, I've long understood that I will be judged by my occupation, that my profession is a gauge people use to see how smart or talented I am. Recently, however, I was disappointed to see that it also decides how I'm treated as a person.
Last year I left a professional position as a small-town reporter and took a job waiting tables. As someone paid to serve food to people, I had customers say and do things to me I suspect they'd never say or do to their most casual acquaintances. One night a man talking on his cell phone waved me away, then beckoned (示意) me back with his finger a minute later, complaining he was ready to order and asking where I'd been.
I had waited tables during summers in college and was treated like apeon (勤杂工) by plenty of people. But at 19 years old, I believed I deserved inferior treatment from professional adults. Besides, people responded to me differently after I told them I was in college. Customers would joke that one day I'd be sitting at their table, waiting to be served.
Once I graduated I took a job at a community newspaper. From my first day, I heard a respectful tone from everyone who called me. I assumed this was the way the professional world worked--cordially.
I soon found out differently. I sat several feet away from an advertising sales representative with a similar name. Our calls would often get mixed up and someone asking for Kristen would be transferred to Christie. The mistake was immediately evident. Perhaps it was because money was involved, but people used a tone with Kristen that they never used with me.
My job title made people treat me with courtesy. So it was a shock to return to the restaurant industry.
It's no secret that there's a lot to put up with when waiting tables, and fortunately, much of it can be easily forgotten when you pocket the tips. The service industry, by definition, exists to cater to others' needs. Still, it seemed that many of my customers didn't get the difference between server and servant.
I'm now applying to graduate school, which means someday I'll return to a profession where people need to be nice to me in order to get what they want. I think I'll take them to dinner first, and see how they treat someone whose only job is to serve them.
The author was disappointed to find that _______.
A.one's position is used as a gauge to measure one's intelligence
B.talented people like her should fail to get a respectable job
C.one's occupation affects the way one is treated as a person
D.professionals tend to look down upon manual workers
57、What does the author intend to say by the example in the second paragraph?
A.Some customers simply show no respect to those who serve them.
B.People absorbed in a phone conversation tend to be absent-minded.
C.Waitresses are often treated by customers as casual acquaintances.
D.Some customers like to make loud complaints for no reason at all.
58、 How did the author feel when waiting tables at the age of 19?
A.She felt it unfair to be treated as a mere servant by professionals.
B.She felt badly hurt when her customers regarded her as a peon.
C.She was embarrassed each time her customers joked with her.
D.She found it natural for professionals to treat her as inferior.
59、What does the author imply by saying "... many of my customers didn't get the difference between server and servant" ( Line 3, Para. 7)?
A.Those who cater to others' needs are destined to be looked down upon.
B.Those working in the service industry shouldn't be treated as servants.
C.Those serving others have to put up with rough treatment to earn a living.
D.The majority of customers tend to look on a servant as a server nowadays.
60、The author says she'll one day take her clients to dinner in order to ________
A.see what kind of person they are
B.experience the feeling of being served
C.show her generosity towards people inferior to her
D.arouse their sympathy for people living a humble life
What's hot for 2007 among the very rich? A $7.3 million diamond ring. A trip to Tanzania to hunt wild animals. Oh, and income inequality.
Sure, some leftish billionaires like George Soros have been railing against income inequality for years. But increasingly, centrist and right-wing billionaires are starting to worry about income inequality and the fate of the middle class.
In December, Mortimer Zuckerman wrote a column in U.S. News & World Report, which he owns. "Our nation's core bargain with the middle class is disintegrating," lamented (哀叹) the 117th-richest man in America."Most of our economic gains have gone to people at the very top of the income ladder. Average income for a household of people of working age, by contrast, has fallen five years in a row." He noted that "Tens of millions of Americans live in fear that a major health problem can reduce them to bankruptcy."
Wilbur Ross Jr. has echoed Zuckerman's anger over the bitter struggles faced by middle-class Americans. "It's an outrage that any American's life expectancy should be shortened simply because the company they worked for went bankrupt and ended health-care coverage," said the former chairman of the International Steel Group.
What's happening? The very rich are just as trendy as you and I, and can be so when it comes to politics and policy. Given the recent change of control in Congress, the popularity of measures like increasing the minimum wage, and efforts by California's governor to offer universal health care, these guys don't need their own personal weathermen to know which way the wind blows.
It's possible that plutocrats (有钱有势的人) are expressing solidarity with the struggling middle class as part of an effort to insulate themselves from confiscatory (没收性的) tax policies. But the prospect that income inequality will lead to higher taxes on the wealthy doesn't keep plutocrats up at night. They can live with that.
No, what they fear was that the political challenges of sustaining support for global economic integration will be more difficult in the United States because of what has happened to the distribution of income and economic insecurity.
In other words, if middle-class Americans continue to struggle financially as the ultrawealthy grow ever wealthier, it will be increasingly difficult to maintain political support for the free flow of goods, services, and capital across borders. And when the United States places obstacles in the way of foreign investors and foreign goods, it's likely to encourage reciprocal action abroad. For people who buy and sell companies, or who allocate capital to markets all around the world, that's the real nightmare.
What is the current topic of common interest among the very rich in America?
A.The fate of the ultrawealthy people.
B.The disintegration of the middle class.
C.The inequality in the distribution of wealth.
D.The conflict between the left and the right wing.
62、What do we learn from Mortimer Zuckerman's lamentation?
A.Many middle-income families have failed to make a bargain for better welfare.
B.The American economic system has caused many companies to go bankrupt.
C.The American nation is becoming more and more divided despite its wealth.
D.The majority of Americans benefit little from the nation's growing wealth.
63、From the fifth paragraph we can learn that _________.
A.the very rich are fashion-conscious
B.the very rich are politically sensitive
C.universal health care is to be implemented throughout America
D.Congress has gained popularity by increasing the minimum wage
64、What is the real reason for plutocrats to express solidarity with the middle class?
A.They want to protect themselves from confiscatory taxation.
B.They know that the middle class contributes most to society.
C.They want to gain support for global economic integration.
D.They feel increasingly threatened by economic insecurity.
65、What may happen if the United States places obstacles in the way of foreign investors and foreign goods?
A.The prices of imported goods will inevitably soar beyond control.
B.The investors will have to make great efforts to reallocate capital.
C.The wealthy will attempt to buy foreign companies across borders.
D.Foreign countries will place the same economic barriers in return.
Part VI Translation (30 minutes)
Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to translate a passage from Chinese into English. You should write your answer on Answer Sheet 2.
66、中医(Traditional Chinese Medicine)是中华文化不可分割的一部分，为振兴华夏做出了巨大的贡献。如今，中医和西医(western medicine)在中国的医疗保健领域并驾齐驱。中医以其独特的诊断手法、系统的治疗方式和丰富的典籍材料，备受世界瞩目。中国的中医事业由国家中医药管理局(State Administration of TCM and Pharmacology)负责。现在国家已经出台了管理中医的政策、法令和法规，引导并促进这个新兴产业的研究和开发。在定义上，中医是指导中国传统医药理论和实践的一种医学，它包括中医疗法、中草药(herbalogy)、针灸(acupuncture)、推拿(massage)和气功 (qigong)。
1-10 CBACB DBCAB 11-20 ABDBC DCDAC 21-25 DBADB
26. dominated 27.slipped 28. perceptions 29. reputation 30.based on 31. institutions
32.followed by 33.underlined 34.decline 35.Relative to
36-45 JIKNC LFAOE 46-55 BHKOM DNJFL
56-65 CADBA CCBCD