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  Organizational Culture and Environment:The Constraints

  1、Omnipotent view of management:管理万能论:

  The view that managers are directly responsible for an organization‘s success or failure.

  管理者对组织的成败负有直接责任。

  2、Symbolic view of management :管理象征论:

  The view that managers have only a limited effect on substantive organizational outcomes because of the large number of factors outside their control.

  管理者影响结果的能力受外部因素的制约和约束。

  3、Organizational culture:组织文化

  A system of shared meaning within an organization that determines in large degree how employees act.

  组织成员共有的价值和体系。这一体系在很大程度上决定了组织成员的行为方式。

  4、Strong culture :强文化

  Organizations in which the key values are intensely held and widely shared.

  强烈拥有并广泛共享基本价值观的文化。

  5、Socialization: 社会化

  The process that adapts employees to the organization‘s Culture

  是指雇员适应组织文化所经历的过程。

  6、External environment :外部环境

  Outside institutions or forces that potentially affect an organization‘s performance.

  指能够对组织绩效造成潜在影响的外部力量和机构。

  7、Specific environment :具体环境

  The part of the environment that is directly relevant to the achievement of an organization‘s goals.

  包括那些对管理者的决策和行动产生直接的影响并与实现组织目标直接相关的要素。

  8、General environment :一般环境

  Broad external conditions that may affect the organization.

  包括可能影响组织的广泛的经济条件;政治/法律条件;社会文化条件;技术条件和全球条件。

  9、Environmental uncertainty:环境的不确定性

  The degree of change and complexity in an organization‘s environment.

  组织环境的变化程度和复杂程度。

  10、Environmental complexity:环境复杂性

  The number of components in an organization‘s environment and the extent of an organization’s knowledge about its environmental components.

  组织环境中的要素数量以及组织所拥有的与这些要素相关的知识广度。

  11、Stakeholders:利益相关者

  Any constituencies in the organization‘s external environment that are affected by an organization’s decisions and actions (and that can influence the organization.)

  组织外部环境中受组织决策和行动影响的任何相关者。

  12、Boundary spanning:跨域管理

  Interacting in specific ways with various external stakeholders to gather and disseminate important information.

  采用更具体的方式与各种外部利益相关者开展互动合作,以收集和传播重要的信息。

  13、Stakeholder partnerships:利益相关者伙伴关系

  Proactive arrangements between an organization and a stakeholder to pursue common goals

  为追求共同目标而在组织和利益相关者之间达成的非正式协议。

  14、Workplace spirituality: 工作场所的精神境界

  A recognition of an inner life that nourishes and is nourished by meaningful work that takes place in the context of community

  一种对生命内在意义的认识,这种认识培育了团体环境下工作的意义,同时也受到后者的滋养

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