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  Foundations of Control:

  1、Control:控制

  The process of monitoring activities to ensure that they are being accomplished as planned and of correcting any significant deviations.

  是对各项活动的监视,从而保证各项行动按计划进行并纠正各种显著偏差的过程。

  2、Market control:市场控制

  An approach to control that emphasizes the use of external market mechanisms to establish the standards used in the control system.

  是一种强调使用外在市场机制,在系统中建立使用标准来达到控制的方法。

  3、Bureaucratic control:官僚控制

  An approach to control that emphasizes organizational authority and relies on administrative rules, regulations, procedures, and policies.

  是一种强调组织的权威,依靠管理规章、制度、过程及政策来实现控制系统的方法。

  4、Clan control:小集团控制

  An approach to control in which employee behavior is regulated by the shared values, norms, traditions, rituals, beliefs, and other aspects of the organization‘s culture.

  在小集团控制下,员工的行为靠共同的价值、规范、传统、仪式、信念及其他组织文化方面的东西来调节。

  5、Control process:控制过程

  A three-step process including measuring actual performance, comparing actual performance against a standard, and taking managerial action to correct deviations or inadequate standards.

  控制过程可以划分为三个步骤:(1)衡量实际绩效;(2)将实际绩效与标准进行比较;(3)采取管理行为来纠正偏差或不足。

  6、Management by walking around (MBWA):走动管理

  A team used to describe when a manager is out in the work area, interacting directly with employees, and exchanging information about what‘s going on.

  描述的是管理者到达工作现场,直接与员工交流,交换关于工作如何进展的信息。

  7、Range of variation:。 偏差范围

  The acceptable parameters of variance between actual performance and the standard.

  是实际工作成绩与标准之间可接受的偏差参数。

  8、Immediate corrective action:直接纠正行动

  Corrective action that corrects problems at once to get performance back on track.

  是指立即将出现问题的工作矫正到正确的轨道上;

  9、Basic corrective action:彻底纠正行动

  Corrective action that looks at how and why performance deviated and then proceeds to correct the source of deviation.

  则首先要弄清工作中的偏差是如何产生的,为什么会产生,然后再从产生偏差的地方开始进行纠正行动。

  10、Feedforward control:前馈控制

  A type of control that focuses on preventing anticipated problems since it takes place in advance of the actual work activity.

  是发生在实际工作开始之前,能避免预期出现的问题的控制类型。

  11、Concurrent control:同期控制

  A type of control that takes place while a work activity is in progress.

  是发生在工作活动进行之中的控制类型。

  12、Feedback control:反馈控制

  A type of control that takes place after a work activity is done.

  是控制作用发生在行动之后的控制类型。

  13、Employee theft:员工偷窃

  Any unauthorized taking of company property by employees for their personal use.

  就是指任何未经允许将公司财产拿出作为员工个人使用的行为。

  14、Operations management:作业管理

  The design, operation, and control of the transformation process that converts resources into finished goods or services.

  是指将资源变成最终产品和服务的转换过程中的设计、作业和控制。

  15、manufacturing organizations:制造型组织

  Organizations that produce physical goods.

  生产有形产品的组织形式。

  16、service organizations :服务型组织

  Organizations that produce nonphysical outputs in the form of services.

  生产的是以服务形式出现的无形输出的组织形式。

  17、productivity:生产率

  The overall output of goods or services produced divided by the inputs need to generate that output.

  产出的所有产品或服务除以得到这些产出所需的全部投入。

  18、value:价值

  The performance characteristics, features and attributes, and any other aspects of goods and services for which customers are willing to give up resources.

  价值是行为的特征、特性或属性,以及顾客愿意放弃资源来换取产品或服务的任何内容。

  19、value chain:价值链

  The entire series of organizations work activities that add value at each step beginning with the processing of raw materials and ending with finished product in the hands of end users.

  价值链就是从原材料加工到产成品的到达最终用户手中的过程中,所有增加价值的步骤所组成的全部有组织的一系列活动。

  20、value chain management:价值连管理

  The process of managing the entire sequence of integrated activities and information about product flows along the entire value chain.

  管理关于在价值连上流动的产品的有序的相互关联的活动和信息的全部过程。

  21、business model:商业模式

  A strategic design for how a company intends to profit from its broad array of strategies, process, and activities.

  一个公司如何从它的宽广的战略、过程和活动的组合中获取利润的战略设计。

  22、organizational processes:组织运行方式

  The way that organizational work is done.

  组织工作运行的方式。

  23、intellectual property:知识产权

  Proprietary company information that‘s critical to its efficient and effective functioning and competitiveness.

  组织能达到高效率和高效益运行所需要的东西。

  24、quality:质量

  The ability of a product or service to reliably do what it‘s supposed to do and to satisfy customer expectations.

  产品或服务的很可靠的能达到预期要求与满足客户期望的一种能力。

  25、ISO 9000 A series of international quality management standards that set uniform guidelines for processes to ensure that products conform to customer requirements.

  ISO9000是国际标准化组织建立的一组为了更好的使产品满足客户的需要的质量管理标准。

  26、Six Sigma:6 Sigma A quality standard that establishes a goal of no more than 3.4 defects per million parts or procedures.

  6 Sigma 是这样一个质量标准,即产品的不合格率不高于百万分之三点四。

  27、performance:绩效

  The end result of an activity.

  绩效是一项活动的最终结果。

  28、organizational performance:组织绩效

  The accumulated end results of all the organization‘s work processes and activities.

  组织中所有工作流程和活动的最终累积结果。

  29、asset management:资产管理

  The process of acquiring, managing, renewing ,and disposing of assets as needed , and of designing business models to exploit the value from these assets.

  是资产的获取,管理,更新,处置和从这些资产中获取价值的商业模式设计的过程。

  30、organizational knowledge:组织知识

  Knowledge that‘s created by collaborative information sharing and social interaction that lead to organizational members taking appropriate actions.

  是通过共享合作性信息和社会性互动而导致组织成员采取合适行动而创造的知识。

  31、productivity:生产率

  The overall output of goods or services produced divided by the inputs needed to generate that output.

  商品和服务的总产出除以产生那些产出的总投入。

  32、organizational effectiveness:组织有效性

  A measure of how appropriate organizational goals are and how well an organization is achieving those goals.

  组织效力是一个组织目标有多合适以及组织达到那些目标有多好的衡量标准。

  33、economic value added(EVA):经济附加值(EVA)

  A financial tool for measuring corporate and divisional performance calculated by taking after-tax operating profit minus the total annual cost of capital.

  经济附加值是一个衡量全体和各个部分绩效的金融工具。是把税后经营利润减去总的资本年成本。

  34、market value added (MVA):市场附加值(MVA)

  A financial tool that measures the stock market‘s estimate of the value of a firm’s past and expected investment projects.

  它是衡量股市对一个公司过去或预期的资本投资项目的价值评价的一种金融工具。

  35、management information system (MIS):管理信息系统(MIS)

  A system used to provide management with needed information on a regular basis.

  一个在正常的基础上用来为管理提供必要的信息的系统。

  36、data;数据

  Raw, unanalyzed facts.

  数据是未加工的,未分析的东西。

  37、information:信息

  Processed and analyzed data.

  是经过分析和处理后的数据。

  38、balanced scorecard :平衡计分卡

  A performance measurement tool that looks at four areas-financial, customer, internal processes ,and people / innovation / growth assets- that contribute to a company‘s performance.

  它是一种绩效衡量工具,它关注以下四个领域:财务,顾客,处在过程和人力/改革资产增长。 并对组织绩效作出了贡献。

  39、benchmarking:标杆比较

  The search for the best practicing among competitors or noncompetitors that lead to their superior performance.

  标杆比较是从竞争者和非竞争者中寻找导致他们成功的最佳实践。

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